Friedrich Balck  > Biosensor  > Versuche  > Reichenbach

Beobachtungen:

Reichenbach      Odische Lohe und andere Bücher



1849   Lebenskraft  Band 1                   Schluss
1850   Lebenskraft  Band 2                                          Resumee
                                       Konzentration des Odlichts   konzentration

1850  The Vital Force                 
preface          conclusion

1867  odische Lohe                     lohe
                                Die Lohe  erster Vortrag


1852  Odisch-magnetische Briefe, 1 bis 16,  reichenbach-briefe

1854  Der sensitive Mensch und sein Verhalten zum Ode, Stuttgart und Tübingen (1854)     /reichenbach 1854/


Berliner Professoren kommen nicht zur Vorführung seiner Experimente:
         reichenbach-berlin-professoren 

v. Reichenbach weist Strukturen nach beim elektrischen Leiter in dem Strom fließt: 
         reichenbach-annalen-1861.htm 

Bestätigung seiner Versuche in heutiger Zeit:
2012  strom-sehen-002.htm#kapitel-02
2013  bbewegte-materie.htm#kapitel-02-01-06


Aussagen und Bewertung zu v. Reichenbachs Experimenten durch O. Korschelt und einen  "ungenannten" Physikers :
        korschelt-1892-seite-162-197.htm



reichenbach_g.jpg
Abb. 01: Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach (February 12, 1788 – January 1869)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Karl_Reichenbach.jpg/200px-Karl_Reichenbach.jpg

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_von_Reichenbach

Nach dem Studium der Naturwissenschaften in Tübingen arbeitete er für die Eisenhammerwerke im badischen Hausach. Dort entwickelte und vermarktete er neuartige Öfen für die Holzverkohlung. Nach seiner Promotion siedelte er ins mährische Blansko über, um für den Grafen Salm in dessen Eisenhüttenwerken zu arbeiten. Während dieser Tätigkeit beschäftigte er sich mit den Bestandteilen des Holzteers. Dabei entdeckte von Reichenbach 1830 das Paraffin und 1832 das Kreosot, ein antiseptisches Phenolgemisch. Diese Entdeckungen brachten ihm bald ein beachtliches Vermögen ein und führten 1839 zu seiner Adelung als Freiherren.

Am 15. November 1833 ging in Blansko ein Meteorit nieder. Dieses Ereignis faszinierte von Reichenbach derart, dass er seine Arbeiter tagelang suchen ließ, bis der Meteorit gefunden wurde. In der Folgezeit nutzte er sein Vermögen auch dazu, eine bedeutende Meteoritensammlung anzulegen. Die Begriffe Kamacit, Taenit und Plessit für Bestandteile von Eisenmeteoriten gehen auf ihn zurück. 1869 schenkte er seine Sammlung der mineralogischen Schau- und Lehrsammlung in Tübingen, wo sie heute noch zu besichtigen ist.

1835 erwarb Reichenbach das Schloss Cobenzl bei Wien. Wegen seiner im Schloss durchgeführten Experimente erhielt er von den Wienern den Beinamen „Zauberer vom Cobenzl“.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Reichenbach

"Scientific contributions

Reichenbach conducted original scientific investigations in many areas. The first geological monograph which appeared in Austria was his Geologische Mitteilungen aus Mähren (Vienna, 1834).

His position as the head of the large chemical works, iron furnaces and machine shops upon the great estate of Count Hugo secured to him excellent opportunities for conducting large-scale experimental research. From 1830 to 1834 he investigated complex products of the distillation of organic substances such as coal and wood tar, discovering a number of valuable hydrocarbon compounds including creosote, paraffin, eupione and phenol (antiseptics), pittacal and cidreret (synthetic dyestuffs), picamar (a perfume base), assamar, capnomor, and others. Under the name of eupione, Reichenbach included the mixture of hydrocarbon oils now known as waxy paraffin or coal oils. In his paper describing the substance, first published in the Neues Jahrbuch der Chemie und Physik, B, ii, he dwelt upon the economical importance of this and of its associate paraffins, whenever the methods of separating them cheaply from natural bituminous compounds would be established.


Earth's Magnetism
Reichenbach expanded on the work of previous scientists, such as Galileo Galilei, who believed the Earth's axis was magnetically connected to a universal central force in space, in concluding that Earth's magnetism comes from magnetic iron, which can be found in meteorites. His reasoning was that meteorites and planets are the same, and no matter the size of the meteorite, polar existence can be found in the object. This was deemed conclusive by the scientific community in the 19th century.

Odic Force
In 1839 Von Reichenbach retired from industry and entered upon an investigation of the pathology of the human nervous system. He studied neurasthenia, somnambulism, hysteria and phobia, crediting reports that these conditions were affected by the moon. After interviewing many patients he ruled out many causes and cures, but concluded that such maladies tended to affect people whose sensory faculties were unusually vivid. These he termed "sensitives"

Influenced by the works of Franz Anton Mesmer he hypothesised that the condition could be affected by environmental electromagnetism, but finally his investigations led him to propose a new imponderable force allied to magnetism, which he thought was an emanation from most substances, a kind of "life principle" which permeates and connects all living things. To this vitalist manifestation he gave the name Odic force."


siehe auch /Nahm 2012/ 
        The Sorcerer of Cobenzl and His Legacy: The Life of Baron Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach,
        His Work and Its Aftermath.










redaktionell überarbeitet
Th   T
ryst   rist
c    z
blos   bloß
giebt gibt
irt   iert
ire   iere

Blau eingefärbte Textstellen: Beobachtungen

Maßeinheiten:
12 Linien  =   1 Zoll   (2,5 cm)
12 Zoll     =   1 Fuß



odische Lohe

" v. Reichenbach, Akad. Vorträge
Die odische Lohe und einige Begleiterscheinungen als neuentdeckte Formen des odischen Princips in der Natur.
Sechs Vorträge gehalten in der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien  vom 11. Mai bis 20 Juli 1865, in freiem Auszuge und durch Zusätze vervollständigt
von Freiherrn von Reichenbach, Phil. Dr. & a . l. Mr.

Wien 1867
Wilhelm Braumüller, k. k. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler. "


auszugsweise
"
Erster Vortrag

Die Lohe.
Geschichte und Vorkommen

In den Jahren 1844 und 1845, also bereits vor zwanzig Jahren sagten mir mehrere hochsensitive Personen, daß sie die leuchtenden Ausströmungen aus ihren Fingerspitzen nicht bloß in der Finsternis der Dunkelkammer, sondern schon am Abend, wenn es noch ziemlich helle sei, deutlich wahrnehmen. Ich schenkte diesen Angaben damals nur wenig Aufmerksamkeit und untersuchte sie nicht näher; ich konnte mir nicht denken, wie man am hellen Abende so schwache Leuchten mit Sicherheit sollte sehen können, wie die odischen es sind. –
Aber das war ein Mißverständnis von meiner Seite, welches sich erst nach zwei Jahrzehnten mir aufklärte. Nicht das Odlicht war es, was hier gesehen wurde, sondern eine Begleiterscheinung. In Berlin war es 1862 der Student Herr Zöller, ein gebildeter Sensitiver und trefflicher Beobachter von einigen zwanzig Jahren, der mich aufs Neue aufmerksam machte, daß er nicht bloß in der Finsternis Leuchtendes, sondern auch bei Tageshelle seinen Fingerspitzen etwas feines, bewegliches, farbloses entströmen sehe. Nun suchte ich andere Hochsensitive dort auf, Herrn Wiedach, Frau Sophie Fritzschen, ihre Tochter Elise, Fräulein Marie Kügler, Frau Elise Marnitz und ihre beiden Kinder, Fräulein Scheibe, Herrn Dürieu, Herrn Kuhn u.a.m. Alle gewahrten bei Tage über den Fingern ein zartes Etwas aufsteigen, ¼ bis 2 Zoll lang,
(Seite -2-)
Sie beschrieben es ganz einstimmig aufwärts strömend, etwas gegen Süden hin geneigt, luftähnlich, lichtlos, und wohin man die Finger auch wenden möchte, ihnen folgend. Nach ihren Schilderungen ist es nicht Rauch, nicht Dunst, nicht Duft, es sieht sich an wie feine Lohe, ähnlich, aber merklich zarter als aufsteigende, erhitzte Luft, wie man sie an jedem geheizten Zimmerofen emporsteigen sehen kann.
In Wien wiederholte ich nun diese Beobachtungen bei zahlreichen Sensitiven, und dies zunächst bei meinen eigenen Hausleuten, die in der größeren Hälfte mehr oder minder reizbar für odische Einwirkungen sind, dann mit Kennern und Freunden der Naturwissenschaften, worunter mir erlaubt worden, auf die Beobachtungen des ausübenden Arztes, Herrn Dr. Bilhuber, des Fabriksherrn zu Atzgersdorf, Herrn J. Fichtner, des Tischlers Josef Ezapek, des jungen Herrn Carl Schelnberger u. a. m. öffentlich Bezug zu nehmen. So sind es dann gegenwärtig an 46 gesunde Personen, zumeist Männer, denen ich die Fragen über den Gegenstand der Lohe vorgelegt und die sie alle gleich und übereinstimmend beantwortet haben.
So ergab sich, daß nicht bloß am Tage, sondern auch bei Lampenschein und Kerzenlicht diese duftähnlichen Lohen von sensitiven Menschen recht gut gesehen werden. Und bald mußte ich erkennen, daß sie bei weitem nicht bloß einen Ausfluß aus den Fingern, sondern auch aus andern Gliedern, zunächst aus den Zehen und allen andern hervorragenden Teilen des lebenden Leibes, selbst aus den Ohrenhöhlen ausmachen, ja daß auch andere organische Gebilde, wie Pflanzen, dann Kristalle und sogar unorganische Substanzen, wie Magnete, endlich auch ganz amorphe Stoffe, wie Metallbarren, Quecksilber, Wasser ec. an der Ausgabe und der Erscheinung der Lohe teilnehmen.
Das hohe wissenschaftliche Interesse, das diese vorläufigen Wahrnehmungen durch die Bedeutung ihres gewichtigen Inhaltes wie durch die Größe ihres Umfanges in Anspruch nehmen, mußte mit Notwendigkeit zu einer aufmerksamern und methodischen Untersuchung hindrängen. Ich unterzog mich ihr mit aller Vorliebe und Ausdauer, und wünsche nun hier ihre Ergebnisse mit Genauigkeit auseinander zu setzen. Dabei darf ich wohl bitten, sie als die ersten Anfänge eines einst wahrscheinlich weitumfassenden Zweiges der Naturwissenschaft aufzunehmen, und die Mängel dieser Incunablen ihrer Jugend zu gute zu halten.
(Seite -3-)
Die erste Frage, um welche es sich hier handelt, muß die des Vorkommens und eine möglichst erschöpfende Aufsuchung der Quellen der Erscheinung sein. An diese wird sich die andere anreihen, ob die Lohe bloß der Materie überhaupt anhänge, oder ob sie von deren Form bedingt werde. Dann muß es sich um ihre Beschaffenheiten und endlich um ihre Beziehungen handeln.
Feste Körper:
Ich beginne damit, mich an kleinere und größere amorphe Körpermassen zu wenden, zunächst an einfache Stoffe. Inmitten deren zeigen die Metalle gleich auf den ersten Anlauf in die Augen fallende Ausströmungen von duftigem, loheartigem Wesen. Wenn über den beiden Enden von Stäbchen Blei 4 Linien, über anderen von Wismut, Kupfer, Zink, Antimon, Zinn, Silber 5 bis 6 Linien hohe Lohen schwebten, so flackerten sie auf Stücken von Eisen, Stahl und Messing, von 5, 12 und 20 Pfunden 50 bis 120 Linien hoch; sie wurden am Kranze eiserner Zimmeröfen, von den Ecken großer Eisen- und Kupferblechtafeln, von 6 Fuß langen eisernen Rundstäben 6 bis 24 Linien, von einem Grobschmiedeambos 48, von einem 10 Fuß langen, 2 Zoll dicken gewalzten Rundeisen 60, von einem 5 Zentner schweren Stück Schmiedeeisen 104, von einer Säule von 10 Zentnern Graugußeisen 228 Linien, also über 1 ½ Fuß hoch gesehen. Ich hatte den schönen antiken kolossalen Hund zu Florenz, Molossus, in Gußeisen vor mein Landhaus gestellt. Er wog bei 15 Zentnern mit der Plinte. Von der Schnauze hauchte er 36 Linien, und von jeder Ohrspitze 27 Linien lange Lohe im Freien aus.
Flüssigkeiten:
Hierauf wurden Flüssigkeiten der Prüfung unterzogen. Mit Quecksilber wurde ein 2 Zoll tiefes Glasgefäß so überfüllt, daß es über dessen Rand noch mit seiner bekannten Wölbung hervorstand. Dies gewährte die Möglichkeit, über das Profil seiner Oberfläche ungehindert hinzuschauen. Es entfaltete einen Lohebesatz von 31 Linien Höhe.
Wasser auf dieselbe Weise in ein 10 Zoll hohes Gefäß gegeben, zeigte über seiner Oberfläche 6 Linien Dunstiges. Von 2 nebeneinander gestellten gleichen Wasserflaschen von 1 Fuß Tiefe wurde die eine leer gelassen, die andere bis an den Rand mit schwacher Wölbung überfüllt und dann bei im Profil betrachtet. Während der Rand der leeren Flasche nur 2 Linien Fransen zeigte, lieferte das Wasser in der angefüllten 8 Linien hohe Lohe.
Essigsäurehydrat auf ähnliche Weise in Anspruch genommen, (Seite -4-) schlug sich mit 6 Linien, Alkohol mit 7 bis 8, Äther mit 6 Linien Lohe.

Zusammengesetztes:
Endlich höhere Zusammensetzungen wie Holz, wurden geprüft an einem klafterlangen buchenen Maßstabe. In der Erdparallele aufgehängt gab er 4 und 6 Linien lange Loheströme an seinen beiden Enden. Eine tannene, 7 Fuß lange, 2 Geviertzolle dicke Stange gab 9 Linien Strömung. Ja Zimmergeräte, wie Kirschholztische, entließen von ihren Ecken 12 bis 16 Linien, ein Schreibtisch an zwei Ecken 16 bis 25 Linien lange Lohe. Der Dachfirst meines Hauses war entlang besetzt mit 108 Linien, eine Schornsteinwölbung, kalt, mit 144 Linien Emanation.


(Seite -6-)
Himmelsrichtung.
Brachte man eine große Kristallensäule in die Richtung des Meridians, den negativen Pol rechtsinnig nach Nord gekehrt, so wuchsen die Ausströmungen beider Pole. Dann stieg die Länge am positiven Pole auf 40, am negativen auf 84, in einem andern Falle von 56 auf 144 Linien, in einem dritten Falle auf 86 und 185 Linien. Selbst wenn die Kristalle widersinnig in den Meridian gebracht wurden, behauptete der negative Pol immer noch den Vorzug der Größe vor dem positiven, wenn auch in verringertem Maße. – Üeberdies waren die Lohen am negativen Pole immer reiner, klarer, zarter, durchsichtiger, am positiven merkbar dumpfer, trüber, gedrängter, dichter.

Vorsicht:
Bei diesen Messungen ist jedoch Vorsicht nicht außer Acht zu lassen, welche die Feinheit des Gegenstandes fordert. Der beobachtende Sensitive muß sich so viel immer möglich von allen äußern Einflüssen frei machen. Zu dem Ende muß er trachten, sich so viel als tunlich ist, inmitten des Zimmers zu halten, überall ziemlich gleichweit entfernt von allen größeren Gegenständen, von größeren Geräten, Öfen und Zimmerwänden, von Lustern und Metallapparaten sich stellen; Niemand solle ihm nach stehen; mit dem Antlitz soll er gegen Nord gekehrt sein; die Beobachtung sollen Vormittags vorgenommen werden, nach einem möglichst frugalen Frühstücke; vor allem aber darf der Beobachter nicht zuvor im Sonnenscheine verweilt haben. Sollen polare Gegenstände beobachtet werden, so ist das Anfassen mit den Händen der Richtigkeit der Erfolge immer sehr nachteilig; am Besten tut man, an der Zimmerdecke eine leichte, wollenen Schnürung zu befestigen, und in diese die polaren Gegenstände in Balance zu legen, mit denen man arbeiten will. Wenn man nicht gerade beabsichtigt, ihre Verhältnisse zum Erdmagnetismus kennen zu lernen, so muß man sie in der Parallel halten, und dann das Mittel von zwei Beobachtungen nehmen, von denen jeder Pol in östlicher und westlicher Richtung sich befand.
Bei der Beschauung der genannten Erscheinung muß sich der Beobachter so stellen, daß er den Gegenstand gegen einen dunklen (Seite -7- ) Hintergrund ins Auge bekömmt; er darf ihm dabei nicht allzunahe stehen, die Größe der Entfernung muß Jeder seiner Sehweite anpassen; mancher sieht am besten auf eine ganze Klafter Abstand, wobei das Zimmer nicht allzuhelle beleuchtet und ohne unmittelbaren Sonnenschein sein soll. Man darf die Lohe auch nicht zu lange fixieren, sondern muß dem Auge bald auf diesem bald jenem andern Gegenstande Erholung im Wechsel verschaffen. Endlich ist das Sehvermögen der Sensitiven in beiden Augen nicht gleich. Ich fand dies um mehr als das doppelte verschieden. Ein Bergkristall wurde mit einem linken Auge am positiven Pole 15, am negativen 40 Linien hoch beloht gesehen; gleichzeitig zeigte das rechte Auge nur 6 und 18 Linien Höhe, während beide Augen vereint 36 und 84 Linien Lohe gewahrten. Die Augen verhalten sich also zu den Lohen nicht bloß passiv sehend, sondern sie greifen vermöge ihres eigenen sensitiven Dualismus in die Erzeugung des Bildes auf der Netzhaut aktiv mit ein.
Magnet:
Von hier leitet uns die Untersuchung zur Lohe der Magnete, ebenso sichtbar am Tage wie bei Dämmerung und Feuerlicht. Ein kräftiger Stabmagnet frei in die Parallel gebracht, duftete an beiden Enden Lohe aus, in eben der Weise wie die Kristalle es tun. Dies tat eine kleine Compaßnadel so gut als mehrere Schuh lange Stahlstäbe. Ein zweischühiger Stabmagnet mit einem Quadratzoll Querschnitt, rechtsinnig in den Meridian gebracht, lieferte am positiven genSüdpole 30, am negativen genNorpole 12 Linien lange Lohen. Einem 5 Fuß langen Stabmagnete in gleicher Lagerung entströmten am negativen Ende 23, am positiven 48 Linien Lohe; widersinnig im Meridian liegend am negativen Ende 40, am positiven 18 Linien.

Seite -10-
Schall
Der Schall ist eine ausgiebige Lohequelle. Schon eine einfache Stimmgabel, angeschlagen, hülle sich in eine feine duftige Wolke. – Die Saiten eines Fortepiano, in welches nach niedergelassener Dämpfung stark hineingerufen wurde, gaben 1 Linie hohe Lohe; wenn aber viele Saiten schnell nacheinander und rasch wiederholt angeschlagen wurden, so stieg sie auf 6 Linien über die ganze Besaitung.- Eine umgekehrte Metallglocke von 10 Zoll Durchmesser mit einem harten Holzhammer angeschlagen, besetzte sich rund um ihren Rand mit Fransen von 42 Linien hoher Lohe. Die Strömung war auf der Seite gegen Nord etwas höher als auf dem übrigen Umfange, also auf der mehr negativen Seite ihres Umfanges.


Zweiter Vortrag

Über die Beschaffenheit der Lohe

Seite -25-
Luftbewegung
Die Bewegung der Luft ist nicht ohne Einfluß auf die Lohe. Blies man darein, so wich sie einen Augenblick wie eine gutbrennende Flamme, wie brennender Alkohol zurück, stellte sich aber im Augenblicke wieder her. Richtete man einen Blasbalg darauf, so wich sie etwas nach der Hinterseite des lohausgebenden Körpers, ohne zu verschwinden, und nahm im nämlichen Augenblicke ihre vorige Stellung wieder ein, so wie der Windzug nachließ.   "



reichenbach-003_g.jpg
Abb. 02: Titel des Buches von Reichenbach. Die odische Lohe 1867
reichenbach-dynamide-band1-titel-001.jpg
Abb. 02a: Titelblatt des Buches von v. Reichenbach 1849
          books.google.de/books?id=MkkyAQAAMAAJ
reichenbach-002_g.jpg
Abb. 03: Übersetzung seines Buches 1850   "Lebenskraft" --> "The Vital Force" .
     books.google.de/books?id=KukRAAAAYAAJ

Ab Seite  Seite 243 im achten Kapitel schreibt Reichenbach über Od und Magnete:
The odylic luminous phenomena seen over the magnet
reichenbach-004_g.jpg
Abb. 04: Auszug aus dem Buch von 1850, Auswirkungen von Magnetfeldern können für Sensitive "sichtbar" sein.

"Still earlier she had seen a glowing thread of light along the edges of the magnet, and a week before she had seen a beautiful" ... 245..  weiter siehe Abbildung
Übersetzung (FB):
Etwas früher hat sie einen glühenden Lichtfaden entlang der Kanten eines Magneten gesehen und eine Woche vorher hat sie gesehen eine wunderschöne..... Seite 245 .....
strahlende Flamme an beiden Polen des offenen Magneten, die strahlenden Licht-Aussendungen mit einer Länge von einem halben Zoll (12 mm).
Fräulein Sturmann (§4) sah die Flammen des gleichen Magneten ungefähr 4 Zoll (10 cm) lang oder dreimal die Länge.
Fräulein Reichel zeichnete sie für mich mit der gleichen Länge wie die Polschuhe des Magneten, d.h. einen Fuß (30 cm) lang.
Fräulein Maix (§6) sah sie in ihrem Normalzustand eine Handbreit hoch; aber wenn sie an Spasmen-Attacken litt, dann erschien derselbe Magnet, als wenn er in Feuer baden würde und die Flammen an einigen Stellen einige Spannen (Handbreite) lang wären.
Fräulein Reichel (§7) sah Magnete sogar in halb abgedunkelten Räumen, und zwar nicht nur, daß sie an ihren Polen Flammen aussandten wie der Bogen eines Hufeisens, sondern ganz eingedeckt waren mit feinen zierlichen Lichtern und selbst dann, wenn die Armatur befestigt war.
Aber Fräulein Atzmannsdorfer (§13) erzählte mir, daß die Flamme meines großen Magneten aus neun Stäben ihr in voller Dunkelheit erschien bis zu einer Höhe von fünf bis sechs Fuß (1,5 bis 1,8 m), so daß sie von ihr umgeben war, als würde er sie anbrennen. Diesen Magnet, genauso wie kleinere, sah sie umgeben auf jeder Seite mit kleinen flaumbärtigen Flammen.
Aus jedem der Pole kamen jeweils aus seinen vier Kanten Flammen, die blau mit rot, gelb und grün waren. Jeder einzelne Stab eines Verbundmagneten hatte seitlich eigene Flammen.
Stabmagnete haben immer eine größere Flamme am Nordpol als am Südpol.

284. Alle diese Beobachtungen stammen aus dem Jahr 1844.
 







Zur Bezeichnung der Pole eines Magnetfeldes, Vergleich mit einer Kompaßnadel

Reichenbach verwendet "genNorden" und "genSüden"

 
Reichenbach--Dynamide, Band I,
"§225 ... In der Regel sprach sich der genNordpol, also das negative Ende der Nadel, kühl, der genSüdpol, die positive Kehrseite derselben, warm aus."
Im Norden der Erde ist der magnetische Südpol, im Süden der magnetische Nordpol.


Die Bezeichnung aus heutiger Sicht:   http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordpol
"Ursprünglich wurde dasjenige Ende einer Magnetitnadel, das in Richtung geographischer Norden zeigte, Nordpol der Nadel genannt. Damals hatte man noch keine Kenntnis von dem dahinter liegenden Mechanismus. Erst sehr viel später wurde man sich dessen bewusst, dass diese von der Physik übernommene Benennung dazu führte, dass die Erde verwirrenderweise in Richtung des geographischen Nordpols physikalisch gesehen einen magnetischen Südpol hat, und in Richtung geographischer Südpol den magnetischen Nordpol. Die Stelle an der Erdoberfläche, wo die Feldlinien des physikalisch magnetischen Südpols der Erde senkrecht austreten, wird zudem geographisch ebenfalls als magnetischer Nordpol bezeichnet. Dies liegt daran, dass es um den Nordpol geht, der sich durch das Erdmagnetfeld ergibt, nicht um die physikalische Polarität des Pols.


Um Missverständnisse zu vermeiden, könnten die Begriffe „Arktischer Magnetpol“ und „Antarktischer Magnetpol“ verwendet werden, was zwar auch angesichts der Polaritätswechsel über geologische Zeiträume hinweg eindeutiger wäre, aber praktisch ungebräuchlich ist. In der Regel wird mit „magnetischer Nordpol“ in einem geographischen Zusammenhang immer der magnetische Pol nahe dem geographischen Nordpol bezeichnet."



Zusammenfassung

K. v. Reichenbach
        Physikalisch-physiologische Untersuchungen über die Dynamide des Magnetismus, der Elektrizität,
        der Wärme, des Lichtes, der Kristallisation, des Chemismus in ihren Beziehungen zur Lebenskraft“,
        Braunschweig (1850), 2. Aufl. in Band I,

Reichenbach--Dynamide, Band I, Seite 209 — 218 ***              abgedruckt auch in /Korschelt 1892/  Seite 140 bis 157
   im Anschluß an §276
"Schluss.

Fasse ich alle in den vorstehenden sieben Abhandlungen auseinandergesetzten Versuche und Beobachtungen mit den daraus gezogenen Folgerungen nahe zusammen, so ergeben sich folgende Sätze für Physik und Physiologie :

1. Die tausendjährige Beobachtung, dass der Magnet auf den menschlichen Organismus fühlbar reagiere, ist weder „Lug, noch Trug, noch Aberglauben", wie viele Naturkundige heutzutage irrtümlich vermeinen und ausgeben, sondern eine wohlbegründete Tatsache, ein lautes physikalisch-physiologisches Gesetz in der Natur.

2. Von der Richtigkeit und Genauigkeit dessen sich zu überzeugen, ist eine ziemlich leichte, überall ausführbare Sache; denn überall gibt es Leute, deren Schlaf durch den Mond mehr oder weniger beunruhigt wird, oder die an nervösen Verstimmungen leiden; fast alle diese empfinden stark genug die eigentümlichen Reizwirkungen des Magnete, wenn er streichend vom Kopf über ihren Leib herabgeführt wird. Zahlreicher noch finden sich gesunde und rüstige Menschen allenthalben, welche den Magnet ganz lebhaft empfinden; viele fühlen ihn schwächer; manche erkennen ihn noch leise; die grosse Menge endlich nimmt ihn gar nicht, mehr wahr. Alle diejenigen, welche diese Reaktion erkennen, und deren Anzahl den dritten oder vierten Teil der Menschheit auszumachen scheint, werden hier mit dem gemeinschaftlichen Ausdrucke „Sensitive" bezeichnet.  §60

3. Die Wahrnehmungen jener Einwirkung drängen sich hauptsächlich den beiden Sinnen des Gefühls und des Gesichts auf, des Gefühls, durch eine Empfindung von scheinbarer (§217) Kühle und Lauwärme (§225); des Gesichts, durch Lichterscheinungen bei lange anhaltendem Aufenthalt in tiefer Dunkelheit, welche von den Polen und Seiten der Magnete ausströmen. §8, 9, 15

4. Die Fähigkeit, solche Wirksamkeit auszuüben, kommt nicht bloß dem Stahlmagnete, wie wir ihn aus unseren Werkstätten hervorgehen sehen, oder dem natürlichen Magneteisensteine zu, sondern die Natur gewährt sie noch in einer unendlich mannigfaltigen Zahl von Fällen. — Zunächst ist es der gesamte Erdball, welcher mittelst des Erdmagnetismus auf sensitive Menschen stärker oder schwächer einwirkt.  §60 usw.

5. Dann ist es der Mond, welcher mittelst ganz derselben Kräfte gegen die Erde und sofort gegen die Sensitiven reagiert. §118

6. Es sind ferner alle Kristalle, natürliche und künstlich erzeugte, und zwar in der Richtung ihrer Achsen. §31, 33, 35, 50, 55

7. Ebenso ist es die Wärme; §121

8. Die Reibung; §127

9. Die Elektrizität; §159

10. Das Licht; §13f

11. Die Strahlen der Sonne und der Gestirne; §97, 208

12. Insbesondere der Chemismus; §137, 142

13. Dann auch die organische Lebenstätigkeit, sowohl  a. der Pflanzen, §25 — als auch  b. der Tiere, namentlich des Menschen. §79

14. Endlich die gesamte Körperwelt. §174, 213

15. Die Ursache dieser Erscheinungen ist eine eigentümliche Kraft in der Natur, welche das ganze Weltall umspannt (§213, 214), verschieden von allen bis jetzt bekannten Kräften, hier mit dem Worte „Od" bezeichnet. §215

16. Sie ist wesentlich verschieden von dem, was wir bis jetzt mit dem Worte „Magnetismus" bezeichneten (§42), denn sie zieht nicht Eisen (§37), noch Magnet; (§24, 38) ihre Träger werden vom Erdmagnetismus (§42) nicht gerichtet; sie richten auch keine schwebende Magnetnadel (§38); sie werden von einem benachbarten elektrischen Strome in der Schwebe nicht beunruhigt (§39), und induzieren in Metalldrähten keinen galvanischen Strom. §40

17. Sie tritt, obgleich verschieden von dem, was wir bis jetzt Magnetismus nannten, überall auf, wo Magnetismus erscheint. §43

18. Umgekehrt aber tritt der Magnetismus bei weitem nicht überall auf, wo das Od erscheint; diese Kraft hat also vom Magnetismus unabhängigen eigenen Bestand; der Magnetismus dagegen ist immer an die Gemeinschaft mit Od gebunden. §43, 44

19. Die odische Kraft besitzt Polarität. An beiden Polen des Magnets tritt sie mit konstant verschiedenen Eigenschaften auf: — am genNordpol (§225 Anmerkung) erzeugt sie auf das Gefühl bei herablaufendem Striche in der Kehle eine Empfindung von Kühle (§236) und in der Finsternis eine blaue und blaugraue Leuchte; am genSüdpol dagegen eine Empfindung wie Lauwärme (§225) und eine rote, rotgelbe und rotgraue Leuchte. Ersteres ist mit entschiedenem Wohlbehagen, letzteres mit Missbehagen und bangen Peinlichkeiten verbunden. — Nächst den Magneten sind es die Kristalle (§ 32, 50, 55, 220, 221) und die lebenden organisierten Wesen (§84 bis 89, 253), an welchen sich odische Polarität deutlich zu erkennen gibt.  (original: genNordpol, genSüdpol)

20. An den Kristallen sind es die Pole der Achsen, an denen die Odpole sich befinden (§32); an mehrachsigen Kristallen sind auch mehrere odische Achsen von ungleicher Stärke.

21. An Pflanzen ist im allgemeinen der aufsteigende Stock dem absteigenden Stocke odpolar entgegengesetzt; es finden sich aber noch unzählige untergeordnete Polaritäten in allen einzelnen Organen. §248 usw.

22. An Tieren, wenigstens an Menschen, steht die ganze linke Seite in odischem Gegensätze gegen die ganze rechte (§226). Zu Polen konzentriert tritt die Kraft in den Extremitäten, den Händen und Fingern (§254), dann in den beiden Füssen (§23) auf, in ersteren stärker, in letzteren schwächer. Innerhalb dieser allgemeinen Polaritäten finden sich aber unzählige kleinere untergeordnete Sonderpolaritäten der einzelnen Organe gegen einander und in sich. (254) -- Männer und Weiber sind qualitativ odisch nicht verschieden.  §227

23. Am Erdball ist der Nordpol für magnetopositiv, der Südpol für negativ angenommen worden; in Folge dessen der gen Nordpol der schwebenden Nadel für negativ, ihr gen Südpol für positiv. In Übereinstimmung damit habe ich den Südpol, der mit dem negativen Magnetpole geht, ebenfalls für negativ „odnegativ" = -Od; den anderen, entgegengesetzten für „odpositiv'' +Od genommen (§231). An Kristallen zeigte sich demzufolge der kalten Abstrich gebende Pol odnegativ, der lauen gebende odpositiv (§231). — An Pflanzen ergab sich im Allgemeinen die Wurzel odpositiv, der Stamm und seine Spitzen odnegativ (§252). — Am Menschen wirkt die linke Seite, ihre Hand und Fingerspitzen lau, widrig und rotleuchtend, folglich odpositiv; die rechte Seite, Hand und Fingerspitzen kühl, angenehm und blauleuchtend, also odnegativ (§226, 231). Bei allen Tieren wird es nicht anders sein. §253

24. Im unmittelbaren Sonnenlichte zeigt sich der rote Strahl und darunter odpositiv; der blaue und darüber, also der sogenannte chemische Strahl odnegativ, das Spektrum also odisch polarisiert. §116

25. Amorphe Körper ohne kristallische Richtung ihrer integrierenden Bestandteile zeigen einzeln keine Polarität; indem aber jeder einzelne in seiner Grenze odlau oder odkühl aufs Gefühl wirkt, und diese Reaktion bei verschiedenen Stoffen verschiedene Grade der Intensität zeigt, so reihen sie sich hernach aneinander und bilden eine fortlaufende Kette von Übergängen in derselben Weise, wie sie ihrer elektrischen Natur nach eine Reihe bilden, die man die; „elektrochemische" nennt. Ganz in derselben Weise fügen sich die sämmtlichen einfachen Körper in eine odische Reihe, die an dem einen Ende die am stärksten positiv odpolaren Körper hat, Kalium usw., am anderen die am stärksten negativen, wie Sauerstoff usw. Und da diese natürliche Gruppierung mit der elektrochemischen nahezu zusammenzufallen scheint, so kann man sie die odchemische Reihe nennen. §236

26. Die Erwärmung (§122, 245) und die Reibung (§129) zeigen +Od; die Erkühlung (§123) und Feuerlicht (§131, 240, 244) -Od. Chemische Aktion wechselt ihren odischen Wert nach Beschaffenheit der in die Tätigkeit eingetretenen Stoffe. (§139, 142, 247) Doch zeigte sie sich bei weitem der grossen Mehrzahl der Fälle nach bisher odnegativ.

27. Von den Gestirnen zeigen sich die, welche ohne eigenes Licht sind, wie der Mond und die Planeten, der Hauptwirkung nach odpositiv (§119, 208, 239); jene, welche Selbstleuchter sind, wie die Sonne und die Fixsterne, der Hauptwirkung nach odnegativ (§100, 208, 239). Das Spektrum derselben zeigt sich aber wieder für sich polarisiert. §116

28. Die odische Kraft, lässt sich an den Körpern fortleiten; alle festen und flüssigen Körper leiten Od auf bis jetzt ungemessene Entfernungen. Nicht nur Metalle, sondern auch Gläser, Harze, Seide, Wasser sind vollkommen gute Odleiter (§47, 81, 113, 118, 121, 141, 167, 203). In etwas geringerem Grade leiten nur weniger zusammenhängende Körper, wie trockenes Holz, Papier, Baumwollenzeuge, Wolle u. dgl. Es findet also einiger, jedoch nur schwacher Übergangswiderstand von einem Körper auf den anderen statt.  §47

29. Die Leitung von Od bewerkstelligt sich viel langsamer als die von Elektrizität, aber viel schneller, als die Wärme; an einem langen Drahte hin vermag ein Mensch ihr beinahe zu folgen, wenn er sich beeilt.

30. Das Od lässt sich verladen, von einem Körper auf den andern bringen, oder wenigstens: ein Körper, an welchem freie Äusserung von Od statt hat, vermag einen anderen in ähnlichen odisch erregten Zustand zu versetzen. §29, 45, 72, 82, 105, 118, 143, 198, 202

31. Die Verladung wird durch Berührung bewirkt. Aber auch blosse Annäherung ohne wirkliche Berührung reicht schon dazu hin, doch mit schwächerer Wirkung. §202

32. Die Verladung vollzieht sich nicht so sehr schnell, sondern bedarf zu ihrer Erfüllung einiger Zeit, mehrerer Minuten. §48

33. Weder bei der Leitung, noch bei der Verladung zeigt sich Polarität in der Aufstellung des Ods in den Körpern; diese scheint vielmehr ein Angebinde gewisser Molekularanordnung der Materie zu sein.

34. Die Andauer des odischen Zustandes der Körper nach vollbrachter Ladung und Entfernung von dem ladenden Gegenstande ist nur kurz, verschieden nach Beschaffenheit der Materie, für gesunde kräftige Sensitive selten über einige Minuten erkennbar (§82, 167, 169), für kranke Hochsensitive bisweilen noch nach einigen Stunden fühlbar, z.B. magnetetes Wasser. Die Körper besitzen also einige Koerzitivkraft für das Od. §46, 83, 112, 205

35. Die Körper, welche durch Zuleitung und Ladung geodet worden sind, z.B. Metalldrähte, liefern an ihren entgegengesetzten Enden fühlbare herausdringende Odströmungen, lau oder kühl, positiv oder negativ, wie die Pole, von denen sie ausgingen. §107, 114, 119

36. Das Od teilt mit der Wärme die Eigenschaft zweier verschiedenen Zustände: den eines trägen, an den Körpern fort und durch sie langsam hindurch ziehenden, und den eines strahlenden (§193, 254). In letzterem Zustande wird das Od von Magneten, Kristallen, menschlichen Leibern (§254) und Händen augenblicklich und ohne allen merkbaren Zeitverbrauch auf die Entfernung einer ganzen Zimmerreihe von gesunden Sensitiven empfunden. Alle Vorgänge, welche träges Od über die Körper nur langsam ausbreiten, strahlen es gleichzeitig nach allen Richtungen aus, doch mit verschiedener Stärke; so die Reibung, die Elektrizität, die Wärme, der chemische Process, die gesamten Körper (§201). Die Odstrahlen durchdringen Kleider, Betten, Bretter, Mauern (§23 Anmerkung), jedoch merkbar weniger leicht und behend, als der Magnetismus dies tut, und mit einer gewissen Langsamkeit. Die Durchleitung und Vorladung mittelst blosser Annäherung der Magnet- und Kristallpole, der Hände, amorpher Körper von hoch-odpolarer Stellung usw. scheint sämmtlich auf Odstrahlung zu beruhen, wohin denn auch das sogenannte Magnetisieren empfindlicher Menschen gehört.

37. Elektrische Ströme, durch Sensitive durchgeleitet, bringen keine bemerkbare odische Erregung hervor, noch wirken sie überhaupt unmittelbar auf jene fühlbar anders ein, als auf alle anderen Menschen (§160); mittelbar dagegen, indem sie in anderen Körpern odische Bewegungen hervorbringen, desto stärker (§167. In den elektrischen Wirkungskreis gebrachte Metalle zeigen die lebhaftesten Oderscheinungen. §168

38. Das Licht, welches odisch erregte Körper aussenden, ist überaus schwach, und wohl schon dieser Schwäche wegen nicht jedem Auge sichtbar. Menschen, die nicht stark sensitiv sind, müssen über eine ganze, wohl auch zwei Stunden lang in absoluter Finsternis verweilt haben, ehe ihr Auge hinlänglich vorbereitet ist, um für die Wahrnehmung des Odlichtes geeignet zu sein, während dieser ganzen Zeit darf nicht eine Spur anderen Lichtes sie getroffen haben. Die Ursache hiervon kann jedoch nicht in einer besonderen Schärfe des Auges allein liegen, weil Alle, welche Odlicht sehen, ohne Ausnahme auch mit der eigentümlichen Reizbarkeit begabt sind, die odischen Eindrücke durchs Gefühl wahrzunehmen, sie nach scheinbarer Lauwärme oder Kühle, nach angenehmen oder widrigen Empfindungen zu unterscheiden, die keinem Wandel unterworfen sind. Da diese verschiedenen Fähigkeiten in bestimmten Personen immer gleichzeitig vorhanden, oder alle gleichzeitig abwesend sind, so müssen sie als verbunden betrachtet werden und scheinen von einer eigentümlichen Disposition des ganzen Nervensystems herzurühren, die wir nicht kennen, nicht aber von einer besondern Beschaffenheit einzelner Sinneswerkzeuge.

39. Das Odlicht der amorphen Körper ist eine Art von schwachem äusseren und inneren Erglühen anscheinend durch die ganze Masse hindurch, ähnlich der Phosphoreszenz und mit ihr vielleicht auf einerlei Grundlage ruhend; ein feiner leuchtender Schleier, wie zarte, flaumige Flamme, umhüllt sie. Bei verschiedenen Körpern tritt dieses Licht in verschiedenen Farben auf, blau, rot, gelb, grün, purpurn, meistens weiss und grau. Einfache Körper, namentlich Metalle, leuchten am hellsten; zusammengesetzte wie Oxyde, Sulfide, Jodide, Kohlenwasserstoffe, Silicate, Salze aller Art, Gläser, ja die Mauern der Zimmerwände, alles leuchtet. §206

40. Wo das Odlicht polarisch auftritt, wie im Magnete (§3, 6) und in den Kristallen (§55), bildet es einen von den Polen ausgehenden, flammenartigen Strom, der in der Sichtung der Magnetarme und Kristallachsen fast gradlinig fortgeht, und mit der Entfernung vom Pole sich etwas erweitert, während er an Lichtintensität abnimmt. Er ist bunt in allen Regenbogenfarben (§9, 13), bleibt jedoch am positiven Pole vorherrschend rot, am negativen vorherrschend blau. Nebenbei bleiben Magnete, Kristalle, Hände, ähnlich den amorphen Körpern, durch ihre Masse hindurch leuchtend, odglühend, und ebenso mit einem feinen, leuchtenden dunstigen, Schleier allenthalben umfangen. §8

41. Die Menschen leuchten fast überall auf ihrer Leibesoberfläche, vorzüglich aber an den Händen (§92), dem Handteller, den Fingerspitzen (§93), den Augen, verschiedenen Stellen am Kopfe, der Magengrube, den Fusszehen und an anderen Orten. Von allen Fingerspitzen aus, in gerader Richtung der verlängerten Finger, strömen flammenähnliche Lichtergüsse von verhältnissmässig grosser Intensität.

42. Die Elektrizität, selbst schon die blosse elektrische Atmosphäre, erzeugt und verstärkt in hohem Grade die odischen Lichterscheinungen (§167), jedoch nicht augenblicklich, sondern nach einer kleinen Pause von ein paar Minuten. §169

43. Der Elektromagnet verhält sich wie gemeiner Magnet in Beziehung auf odische Lichtemanationen (§12), und in eben dem Masse, in welchem er magnetischer Steigerung fähig ist, ist er gleichzeitig zur Verstärkung der Lichterscheinungen geeignet.

44. Sonnenstrahlen und Mondschein erzeugen auf allen Körpern, auf welche sie fallen, Odladung, welche an Drähten in's Finstere geleitet, an deren Spitzen Odflammen geben. §114, 119

45. Wärme (§125), Reibung (§129), Feuerlicht (§134, 147, 240) bringen an ins Finstere geleiteten Drähten und ihren Spitzen sichtbare Leuchten hervor, eine Flamme ähnlich einem Kerzenlichte.

40. Jede chemische Aktion, wenn es auch nur einfache Lösungen in Wasser oder Ersätze von Kristallisationswasser bei verwitterten Salzen sind, bewirken an darein eingesetzten Drähten ganz dasselbe in starkem Masse (§146). Aber auch für sich strömen Zersetzungsprozesse Odflamme aus und verbreiten Odglut. $145

47. Der positive Pol gibt die kleinere, aber leuchtendere; der negative die grössere, aber lichtärmere Flamme; erstere, weil gelb und rot, letztere, weil blau und grau.

48. Die Odflamme strahlt Licht von sich aus, das andere Körper in der Nähe beleuchtet. Es lässt sich in Glaslinsen sammeln und in einem Brennpunkte vereinigen (§18). Man muss also die leuchtenden Odemanationen der Körper und ihrer Pole überhaupt bestimmt unterscheiden von Odlicht im engeren und eigentlichen Sinne
des Wortes.

49. Jede Odflamme lässt sich durch Luftbewegung fächeln, durch Hineinblasen hin und her beugen, verwehen und zersplittern §20); an festen Körpern anstossend, biegt sie sich um, folgt ihrer Oberfläche und strömt daran hin, wie jede gewöhnliche Feuerflamme (§20); sie ist sichtlich ganz materieller Beschaffenheit.

50. Man kann ihr jede beliebige Richtung geben, nach oben, nach unten, nach allen Seiten, sie ist also, bis auf einen gewissen Grad, unabhängig von den Einflüssen des Erdmagnetismus. §20, 53

51. Die odischen Lichtausströmungen suchen Kanten, Ecken und Spitzen (§3) und finden an denselben der Elektrizität ähnlich, leichteren Ausgang, übereinstimmend mit dem bei der Leitung beobachteten Übergangswiderstande: an jenen sprechen daher immer die Temperaturdifferenzen und die Lichterscheinungen vorzugsweise stark sich aus. §114

52. Die an ungleichnamigen Polen ausströmenden Odflammen zeigen kein Bestreben, sich mit einander zu verbinden; es findet durchaus keine merkbare gegenseitige Anziehung statt, und somit auch hierin gänzliche Verschiedenheit vom magnetischen Agens. $3, 9

53. Alle odpositivon Körper strömen warme, alle odnegativen kalte Odflammen aus (§223). Die Odflammen tragen demnach in Bezug auf scheinbare Temperatur den Charakter ihres Pols, und diese gibt somit einen Ausdruck für die odische Beschaffenheit der zugehörigen Körper. §241

54. In manchen Krankheitszuständen, namentlich bei kataleptischen Anfällen, ist eine eigentümliche Art von Anziehung beobachtet worden, welche die Odpole des Magnets, der Kristalle, der Hände, gegen die krankhaft sensitive Hand ausüben (§23). Sie ist ähnlich der des Magnets gegen Eisen, jedoch ohne Gegenseitigkeit (24, 54), d. h. ohne dass von der sensitiven Hand auch umgekehrt merkbare Anziehung gegen die Odpole ausgeübt würde (23, 91). Selbst durch Leitung und Verladung odisch gemachte Gegenstände brachten teilweise diese auffallende Wirkung hervor. §28

55. Im tierischen Organismus stimmen Nacht, Schlaf und Hunger die odischen Ausflüsse herab; Nahrung, Tageslicht und Tätigkeit steigern und erheben sie (§260, 262). Im Schlafe versetzt sich der Herd der odischen Tätigkeit auf andere Stellen im Nervengebäude (§268). Innerhalb der 24 Stunden des Tages und der Nacht findet eine periodische Fluctuation, ein Ab- und Zunehmen derselben im menschlichen Leibe statt. §265

56. Einige Anwendungen von den durch gegenwärtige Untersuchungen ermittelten odischen Gesetzen sind gemacht worden auf die teilweise Erklärung des sogenannten magneteten Wassers (§27, 28, 73, 105, 112); ferner des Lichtes bei schnellen Kristallisationen (§55); des über Gräbern beobachteten Lichtscheines (§158); des mysteriösen Ereignisses in Pfeffel's Garten bei Colmar (§156); des sogenannten magnetischen Zubers (§135, 151); gewisser Wirkung der Verdauung (§152); der Atmung (§153); mancher sonderbaren Abneigungen der Menschen (§175); der Notwendigkeit, sensitive Kranke im magnetischen Meridiane zu lagern (§69, 71); der Anziehung von Magneten und Händen gegen Kataleptische (§23); des odischen Zustandes des menschlichen Körpers (§79 usw.); der täglichen und stündlichen Zustandsveränderungen desselben (§256); und endlich einiger Eigenschaften und Ursachen des Nordlichtes. §21"



/Reichenbach 1850/   The vital force

Übersetzung der Zusammenfassung, Schluß


CONCLUSION.

IF I collect and compare all the experiments and observations deseribed in the preceding seven treatises, with the deductions made from them, the following propositions, physical and physiological, present themselves.

I.    The time-honoured observation, that the magnet has a sensible action an the human organism, is neither a lie, nor an imposture, nor a superstition, as many philosophers now-a-days erroneously suppose and declare it to be, but a well-founded fact, a physico-physiological law of nature, which loudly calls an our attention.

II.    It is a tolerably easy thing, and everywhere practicable, to convince ourselves of the accuracy of this statement; for everywhere people may be found, whose sleep is more or less disturbed by the moon, or who suffer from nervous disorders. Almost all of these perceive very distinctly the peculiar action of a magnet, when a pass is made with it from the head downwards. Even more numerous are the healthy and active persona who feel the magnet very vividly; many others feel it less distinctly; many hardly perceive it; and finally, the majority do not perceive it at all. All those who perceive this effect, and who seem to amount to a fourth or even a third of the people in this part of Europe, are here includcd under the general term " Sensitives." § 60.

III.    The perceptions of this action group themselves about the senses of touch and of sight; of touch, in the form of sensations of apparent (§ 217) coolness and warmth,  ---210---  (§ 225); of sight, in the form of luminous emanations, visible after remaining long in the dark, and flowing frol in the polen and sides of magnets. §§ 8, 9, 15.

IV. The Power of exerting this action not only belongs to steel magnets as produced by art, or to the loadstone, but nature presenta it in an infinite variety of cases. We have first the earth itself, the magnetism of which acts, more or less strongly, on sensitives. § 60 et seq.

V. There is next, the moon, which acts by virtue of the same force on the earth, and, of course, on sensitives. § 118.

VI. We have, further, all crystals, natural and artificial, which act in the line of their axes. §§ 31, 33, 35, 50, 55.

VII. Also heat; § 121.

VIII. Friction; § 127.

IX. Electricity; § 159.

X. Light; § 131.

XI. The solar and stellar rays; §§ 97, 208.

XII. Chemical action especially; §§ 137, 142.

XIII. Organic vital activity; both
a.    That of plants, § 248 et seq.; and
b.    That of animals, especially of man; § 79.

XIV. Finally, the whole material universe. §§ 174, 213.

XV. The cause of these phenomena is a peculiar force, existing in nature, and embracing the universe, (§§ 213, 214), distinct from all known forces, and here called odyle. § 215.

XVI. It is essentially different from what we have hitherto called magnetism, (§ 42), for it does not attract iron, (§ 37), nor the magnet, (§§ 24, 38). Bodies possessing it do not assume any particular direction from the action of the earth's magnetism, (§ 42), they do not affect the magnetic needle, (§ 38). When suspended they are not affected by the proximity of an electric current, (§ 39); and they induce no current in metallic wires. § 40.

XVII. Although distinct from what has hitherto been called magnetism, this force appears everywhere where magnetism appears. § 43.

XVIII. But, conversely, magnetism by no means appears where odyle is found. This forte has, therefore, an  --- 211--- existence independent of magnetism; while magnetism is invariably found combined with odyle. §§ 43, 44.

XIX. The odylic force possesses polarity. It appears with constantly different properties at the opposite poles of magnets. At the northward pole, (§§ 225, 36, note), it generally causes, on the downward pass, a sensation of coolness, (§236), and in the dark a blue and bluish gray light; at the southward pole, on the contrary, a sensation of warmth, and red, reddish yellow and reddish grey light. The former sensation is accompanied by decidedly pleasurable feelings, the latter with discomfort and anxious distress. After magnets, crystals, (§§ 32, 50, 55, 220, 221), and living organised beings, (§§ 84 to 89, 253), exhibit distinct odylic polarity.

XX. In crystals, the odylic poles are found to coincide with the poles of the crystallographic axes, (§ 32). In poly-axal crystals, there are also several axes of unequal force.

XXI. In plants, the caude.x astenden is in general oppositely polar to the caudex descendens; but there are also innumerable subordinate polarities in all the individual organs. § 248 et seq.

XXII.    In animals, at least in man, the whole left side is in odylic opposition to the right, (§ 226). The force appears concentrated in poles in the extremities, the hands and fingers, (§ 254), in both feet, (§ 23), stronger in the hands than in the feet. Within these general polarities there are innumerable lesser subordinate special polarities of the individual organs, both in themselves and as opposed to other symmetrical Organs, (§ 254). Men and women are not qualitatively different. § 227.

XXIII. In the terrestrial sphere, the north pole has been considered as magneto-positive, the south as negative; and, consequently, the northward end or pole of the aus-pended needle has been considered negative, the opposite pole positive. On the same principle, I have called the odylic pole which goes along with the northward or negative magnetic pole, negative, that is, odylo-negative, — 0; the opposite pole, odylo-positive,    + 0. ---212---  (§ 231). In crystals the cooler pole is, therefore, negative, the warmer positive, (§ 231). In plants, the root was generally odylo-positive, the stein and its points negative, (§ 252). In man, the left side, hand, and fingers were warm, disagreeable, and gave out red light; they were, 'therefore, odylo-positive. The right side, hand, and fingers were cool and pleasant, gave out blue light, and were, therefore, negative, (§§ 226, 231). It is the same, probably, in all animals. § 253.

XXIV.    Of the solar rays, the red and those beyond it are odylo-positive; the blue and those beyond it negative. The latter includes the so-called chemical rays. The spectrum is, therefore, polar in relation to odyle. § 116.

XXV.    Amorphous bodies, without crystalline direction of their integrant molecules, show, individually, no polarity. But as each of them acta, within certain limits, producing either warmth or coolness, and as they differ in intensity, they form a continuous chain or series, just as they do, electro-chemically considered. Thus the elements, in relation to odyle, arrange themselves so, that at one end there is found the most odylo-positive Body, potassium, at the other, the most odylo-negative, oxygen. And as this natural series coincides almost exactly with the electro-ehemical, we may call it the odylo-chemical series. § 236.

XXVI.    The heating of bodies, (§§ 122, 245), and friction, (§§ 129, 246), exhibit    0. Cooling, (§ 123), and fire light, (§§ 131, 244, 266), exhibit — 0. Chemical action gives a result which varies with the nature of the acting bodies, (§§ 139, 142, 147). But in the greater number of cases chemical action developed negative odyle.

XXVII.    All stars which shine by reflected light, such as the moon and planets, were, in their chief effects, odylo positive, (§§ 119, 208, 239). Those which shine with their own light, the sun and fixed Stars, were odylo-negative, (§§ 100, 208, 239). Their spectrum was also in itself polar. § 116.

XXVIII.    The odylic force is conducted, to distances yet ---213--- unascertained, by all solid and liquid bodies. Not only metals, but glass, resin, silk, water, are perfect conductors for odyle, (§§ 47, 81, 113, 118, 121, 141, 167, 203). Bodies of leas continuous structure also conduct odyle, but not quite so perfectly; such as dry wood, paper, cotton cloth, woollen cloth, and the like. There is also some, although but a small degree of, resistance to the passage of odyle from one body to another. § 47.

XXIX.    The conduction of odyle is effected much slower than that of electricity, but much more rapidly than that of heat. The hand, if moved rapidly, can almost follow it in its course through a long wire.

XXX.    Bodies may be charged with odyle, or odyle may be transferred from one body to another. In strieter lan-guage, a body, in which free odyle is developed, can excite in another body a similar odylic state. §§ 29, 45, 72, 82, 105, 118, 143, 198, 202.

XXXI.    This charging or transference is effected by contact. But mere proximity, without contact, is sufficient to produce the charge, although in a feebler degree. § 202.

XXXII.    The charging of bodies with odyle requires a certain time, and is not accomplished under several minutes.

XXXIII.    Bodies while conducting odyle, or when charged with it, do not exhibit polarity; which seems to be associated with certain molecular arrangements of matter.

XXXIV.    The duration of the charge in bodies, after separating from the charging substance, is but short, varying according to the nature of the body, but seldom extending beyond a few minutes for strong healthy sensitives (§§ 82, 167, 169); for the most sensitive patients occasionally lasting for some hours, as in the case of magnetised water. Bodies therefore possess some degree of coercitive power for odyle. §§ 46, 83, 112, 205.

XXXV.    Bodies charged with odyle, such as wires, give out at the end furthest from the changing substance sensible emanations, warm or cool, positive or negative, according to the poles from which the charge is taken. §§ 107, 114, 119.   ---214--- 
 
XXXVI.    Odyle has, like heat, the property of existing in two different states; that in which it is sluggish, and is slowly communicated to, and slowly passes through bodies, and that in which it is radiated to a distance, (§§ 193, 254). In this latter form, it is instantly felt by healthy sensitives, without any sensible lapse of time, at the distance of the length of a whole suite of rooms, from magnets, crystals, the human body, (§ 254), and the hands. All bodies and processes, which diffuse odyle over other bodies by slow conduction, radiate it at the same time in all directions, but with varying force; as is seen in friction, electricity, heat, chemical action, and bodies in general, (§ 201). The rays of odyle penetrate through clothes, bed-clothes, boards, walls, (§ 23, note), yet obviously with less facility than magnetism, and with a certain degree of slowness. The conduction and charging of odyle from one body to another, by mere proximity, without contact, as from the polen of magnets and crystals, from the hands, or from amorphous bodies high in the series, such as sulphur, &c. &c. seem all to depend on the radiation of odyle; and this explanation also applies to the so-called magnetising of sensitive persons.

XXXVII.    Electric currents, when passed through sensitive persons, produce no perceptible odylic excitement, nor do they directly act on such persons otherwise than on all others (§ 160); but they do so act mediately, and very powerfully, when they excite the odylic state in other bodies (§ 167), which then act on the sensitives. Metals, placed within the sphere of electrical action, produce the most vivid phenomena. § 168.

XXXVIII.    The light diffused by odylically excited bodies, is exceedingly feeble, and is, probably on this account, not visible to every eye. Those who am only moderately sensitive must remain a long time, perhaps two hours, in absolute darkness before their eyes am sufficiently prepared to enable them to perceive this light. During the whole of this time, the eye must not be reached by the smallest trace of any other light. But the power of   ---215--- perceiving the odylic light cannot depend alone on a peculiar acuteness of vision, because all these who are capable of seeing it, are, without exception, possessed also of that peculiar sensitiveness which enables them to recognise odylic impressions by the sense of feeling, and to distin-guish between the odylic sensations of warmth and coolness, as well as between the pleasurable and offensive feelings they experience; and these sensations are constant. Now, sinne these different powers of perception are, in certain persona, namely, in the sensitive, always present together, we must regard them as associated; and they seem to depend on a peculiar disposition of the whole nervous system, the nature of which is unknown, and not on any peculiar state of individual organs of the senses.

XXXIX.    The odylic light of amorphous bodies is a kind of feeble external and internal glow, extending apparently through the whole mass, somewhat similar to phosphor-escence, and possibly depending on a cause common to it and to that phenomenon. This glow is surrounded by a delicate luminous veil, in the form of a fine downy flame, (§ 207). In different bodies this light has different colours, blue, red, yellow, green, purple, but chiefly white and grey. Elementary bodies, especially metals, shine the most vividly (§ 206); compounds, auch as oxides, sulphureta, iodides, carbohydrogens, silicates, salta of all kinds, different varieties of Blass, even the walls of a room; in short, all things give out light. § 206.

XL.    Where the light is polar, as in a magnet, (§§ 3, 6), and crystals, (§ 55), it forma a kind of flaming current, proceeding from the polen, and flowing almost in a straight line in the direction of the magnetic or crystalline axes. As it extends further from the pole, it widens a little, and ha intensity diminishes. It exhibits all the colours of the rainbow, (§§ 9, 13), but red predominates in the flame from the positive, blue in that from the negative pole.
Besides this, magnets, crystals, and the hand, like amorphous bodies, possess also, diffused apparently through their mass, the luminous glow, which we may call the ---216--- odylic glow, and this again is on all sides enveloped in a delicate, vaporous, luminous veil. § 8.

XLI.    Human beings are thus luminous over nearly the whole surface, but especially on the hands, (§ 92), the palm of the hand, the points of the fingers, (§ 93), the eyes, certain parts of the head, the pit of the stomach, the toes, &c. Flaming emanations stream forth from all the points of the fingers, of relatively great intensity, and in the line of the length of the fingers.

XLII.    Electricity, nay even the mere electrical atmosphere, produces, and also intensifies in a high degree, the odylic luminous phenomena, (§ 167), but this effect is not in-stantaneous, occurring after a short interval, not exceed-ing a few minutes. § 169.

XLIII.    An electro-magnet exhibits the same luminous ap-pearances as an ordinary magnet, (§ 12), and in the same degree in which it is susceptible of increased mag-netic power, it is also susceptible of increased intensity in the odylic light which it yields.

XLIV.    The solar and lunar rays charge with odyle all bodies on which they fall; and if wires, connected with these bodies, extend to a dark chamber, odylic flames appear at their extremity. §§ 114, 119.

XLV.    Heat, (§ 125), friction, (§ 129), fire-light, (§ 134, 147, 240), produce at the ends of wires, in a dark place, flames like that of a candle.

XLVI.    Every chemical action, even mere solution in water, or the recombination of water of crystallisation in efllo-resced salis, produce the same result at the end of a wire in a still higher degree, (§ 146). But chemical processes also, for themselves, give out odylic flames, and exhibit the odylic glow. § 145.

X LVII. The positive pole yields the smaller but brighter flame, the negative pole a larger but lese luminous one. The former is more bright, because it is red and yellow; the latter less luminous, because it is blue and grey.

XLV III. The odylic flame radiates light which illuminates near objects. This light may be concentrated by a lens  ---217---into the focus, (§ 18). The flaming and nebulous ema-nations from bodies and their poles must therefore be carefully distinguished from odylic light in the stritt and proper sense of the term.

XLIX.    All these flames may be moved by currents of air, as by blowing on them, when they bend, yield, and divide themselves, (§ 20); when they meet with solid bodies, they bend round these, following and flowing along the surface, just as ordinary flame does. The odylic flame has, therefore, an obviously material (ponderable ?) character.

L.    It may be made to flow in any direction, upwards, downwards, or laterally, as the body yielding it is held. It is therefore, up to a certain point, independent of terrestrial magnetism. §§ 20, 53.

LI.    The odylo-luminous emanations appear chiefly at edges, corners, and points, (§ 3); and, like electricity, seem to find there an easier egress, coinciding with the resistance to the passalte of odyle observed in conduction. At such planes, therefore, the sensations of warmth, coolness, &c. and the luminous appearances, are especially distinct. § 114.

LII.    The flames of the opposite poles of a magnet, &c., show no tendency to unite. There is no perceptible attraction between them, and in this they differ essentially from the emanations of magnetism proper. §§ 3, 9.

LIII.    All odylo-positive bodies send forth warm flames, all odylo-negative cold flames (§ 223). The flames, there-fore, in regard to apparent temperature, have the character of the poles from which they proceed, and the flame therefore indicates the character of the body, or pole of a body, from which it flows. § 241.

LIV.    In many morbid states, especially in cataleptic fits, a peculiar kind of attraction is observed, exerted by the odylic poles of magnets and crystals, or by the hand, on the hand of the diseased sensitive (§ 23). It resembles that of the magnet for fron, but is not mutual (§§ 24, 54), that is, the sensitive hand exerts no attraction on the  ---218--- body by which it is itself attracted (§§ 23, 91). Even bodies charged, by conduction or otherwise, with odyles, produced, to some extent, this surprising effect. § 28.

LV.    In the animal economy, night, sleep, and hunger, depress or diminish the odylic influence; taking food, day-light, and the active waking state, increase and intensify it (§§ 260, 262). In sleep, the seat of odylic activity is transferred to other parts of the nervous system (§ 268). In the twenty-four hours of day and night, a periodic fluctuation, a decrease and increase of odylic power, occurs in the human body. § 265.

LVI.    Some applications of the laws regulating the odylic phenomena have been made; as the partial explanation of the facts connected with what is called " magnetised" water (§§ 27, 28, 73, 105, 112); of the light attending sudden crystallisation (§ 55); of the lights seen above graves (§ 158); of the mysterious occurrence in PFEFFEL'S garden at Colmar (§ 156); of the so-called " magnetic baquet" (§ 135, 151); of certain effecta of digestion (§ 152); and of respiration (§ 153); of many singular antipathies (§ 175); of the necessity of placing sensitive patients in the plane of the magnetic meridian (§§ 69, 71); of the attraction of the cataleptic hand by magnets, crystals, other hands, &c. (§ 23); of the odylic state of the human body (§ 79 et seq.); of its daily and hourly fluctuations (§ 256); and finally, of some of the properties and the probable causes of the aurora borealis. § 21.


/Reichbach 1849 / Dynamide Band 2

"
Resumee

 590
a) das Licht, das der Magnet im Finsteren sichtbar aussendet, von den Sensitiven in verschiedenen Abständen in verschiednenen Farben gesehen wird; jedoch in bestimmter Entfernung für jedes bestimmte Auge die Farbe konstant bleibt.

b) Dies Licht ist in seinen Trägern nicht bloß plastisch vielgespaltig, sondern es nimmt auch in Beziehung auf seine Färbung alle bekannten Formen an.

c) Diese Formen umfassen den ganzen Inhalt des Regenbogens, alle seinen Übergangstinten, und Weiß und Schwarz in allen Abschattungen von Grau.

d) Sie erscheinen dem sensitiven Auge in vielen Fällen einzeln; dann sind sie grau an beiden Polen, oder blau am genNordpol und rot am genSüdpole  (original: genNordpol)
e) In den meisten aber, und immer in denen von einiger Intensität, treten mehrere mit einander auf; häufig erscheinen alle beisammen.

f) So wie sie zusammen vorkommen und sich frei ordnen können, lagern sie sich nach der Reihenfolge, welche dem Regenbogen auferlegt ist.

g) Das rote Ende der Iris ist dann unten, das blaue oben.
h) Oben über dem Blau erscheint, vermittelt durch das Zwischenglied des Violett, noch einmal ein reines Rot, so daß das odische Spektrum, das mit Rot beginnt, durch Orange, Gelb, Grün, Blau und Veilchenblau hindurch, mit Rot wieder endigt.

i) Diese farbigen Lichterscheinungen bewirken nach gleichen Gesetzen der Stahlmagnetismus, der Elektromagnetismus und der  Erdmangetismus (Weltmagnetismus).

k) Der letztere, weil für uns relativ unbeweglich, prägt ihnen gewisse Regeln auf, die für jeden Punkt des Erdballs in der Anwendung veränderte Ergebnisse liefern.

l) Der Erdmagnetismus tut sie in jedem leeren Eisenstabe kund.

m) Die odischen Lichterscheinungen bestehen in allen beobachteten Fällen, und wahrscheinlich immer in einer Iris, ausgenommen vielleicht in eineigen Richtungen, in denen sie grau erscheinen.

n) Innerhalb dieser Iris hat in der Regel eine der Farben, seltener zwei, das Übergewicht in Größe und Intensität. Vielmals wird dann nur diese Herrschfarbe von den Sensitiven wahrgenommen, und die anderen schwächeren entgehen ihnen.

o) Sie tragen in der Regel, wenn sie gegen die Inklination gerichtet werden, graue Farbe; gegen Nord Blau, nach oben Gelb, gegen Süd Rot; dann zeigen sie im Osten Grau und im Westen Gelb. Mischfarben, wie Grün, Orange, Veilchenblau, liegen dazwischen. Dies gilt in den Meridiankreisen, den Horizontalkreisen und den Parallelkreisen mit gleicher Genauigkeit.

p) Treten die Stahlmagnetismen oder Elektromagnetismen durch widersinnige Lage in Konflikt mit dem Erdmagnetismus, so ist die Folge Schwächung und Verfärbung der Odlichtfarben. In rechtsinniger Lage verstärken und beleben sie sich. Zwischenlagen geben vermittelte Abschattungen der Farben.

q) Auch Kristallod, Biod und jeder andere polare Odquell wirkt wie Erdmagnetismus auf anderes Odlicht ein, wenn es damit in Konflikt gebracht wird.

r) Ein Magnetstab, um seinen Achse gedreht, an beiden Enden beflammt, zeigt weder im Vertikalkreise des Meridians, noch in den der Parallele, noch im Horizontalkreise, noch in irgend einer beliebigen Lage an seinen Polen Odflammen, die Komplementärfarben ausmachten, obgleich sie in polarer Opposition stehen.
s) Doch zeigen die Farben des oberen Halbkreises mehr Lichtglanz, als die des unteren. Alle Farben, wenn sie der genNorpol eine Magnetstabes erzeugt, sind glänzender auf derm Halbkreises, der nach Norden gekehrt ist, matter aber auf dem, der nach Süden liegt; die Farben, die der genSüdpol erzeugt, verhalten sich in der Lichtintensität umgekehrt.

t) Die farbigen Odflammen lassen sich vom Magnete auf andere Odleiter übertragen.

u) Magnetstäbe an den Polen in mehrere Spitzen auslaufend, verteilen diese Farben unter ihnen, so daß jede eine ???? dere, ihrer Himmelsgegend entsprechende Farbe trägt, und es läßt sich die Iris jeder Flamme in ihre Elementarfarben zerlegen.

v) Eine viereckige Eisenplatte zeigt auf solche Weise, wie den Magnetismus, so auch das Od, nicht bloß longitudinal, sondern auch nach beiden senkrecht auf einander stehenden Richtungen, transversal.
w) Eine eiserne Kreisfläche, besser noch und vollständiger eine eiserne Kugel, durch welche ein starker Elektromagnet geführt ist, zeigt alle diese Erscheinungen vereint, und besitzt noch eine Anzahl neuer, wodurch sie endlich alle Ähnlichkeit mit der, mit Polarlichtern versehenen Erdkugel gewinnt.

x) Die odische Natur des positiv magnetischen Nordpols der Erde, die odische Natur des Ostens und die des Erdbodens (das Untere) tragen einen gewissen Charakter von Übereinstimmung, in welchem sie dem, welcher den negativ magnetischen Südpol der Erde, den Westen und den allgemeinen Himmel (das Obere) vereinet, oppositionell gegenüber stehen."


Konzentration des Odlichts
"
595

Den Versuch in der ersten Abhandlung §18, in welchem ich bestrebt war, Magnetlicht durch eine große Glaslinse in Gegenwart der Frl. Reichel zu konzentrieren, habe ich seitdem mit vielen Sensitiven wiederholt. Dazu habe ich mit eine große Glaslinse aus Paris verschafft, die bei 0,3 m Durchmesser eine Brennweite von 0,29 m (11 Zoll) besitzt. Dies schwere Glas ließ ich so fassen, daß es in jeder Richtung leicht beweglich war. Ein neunblätteriges großes Hufeisen legte ich in 1 Meter Abstand davon so, daß beide Pole dem Glase zugekehrt waren. Weiter durfte ich mich füglich mit dem Magnete davon nicht entfernen, weil ich sonst zu viel von der ohnehin so geringen Menge Licht verlor; andererseits war die Magnetflamme selbst 25 bis 30 Zentimeter breit, ich durfte also immerhin darauf rechnen, daß ich ungeachtet der Nähe des Lichtquelles eine genügende Quantität paralleler Strahlen auf die Linse erhielt, um sie in einem Hauptbrennpunkte vereinigt bekommen zu können. So vorgerichtet führte ich zu verschiedenen Zeiten die kränklichen Frl. Atzmannsdorfer, Frau Kiesesberger, Frl. Dorfer, Fried. Weidlich und die gefundenen Herren Kotschy und Tirka, den Tischler Klaiber und den blinden Bollmann, auch die Zgfr. Zinkel und Wilh. Glaser in der Dunkelkammer davor hin. Schon der Blinde vermochte drei in verschiedenen Richtungen gelegene Hellen zu unterscheiden, und wenn ich ihn danach tappen ließ, so geriet er mit seinen Händen nach einander auf den Magnet, den er blaßgelblich, dann auf die Glaslinse, die er rötlich und endlich auf den Schild, wo er die Helle weiß, am kleiesten, aber am stärksten angab. Alle anderen Personen erkannten bei einem Abstande der Scheibe von der Linse von 0,3 m bis 0,4 m auf der ersteren einen runden hellen Fleck von 2, 4 bis 8 Zentimeter Durchmesser; die genauesten Beobachter gaben 0,30 m als die Entfernung beider an, bei welcher der Brennpunkt am kleinsten und hellsten ausgebildet erschien; so namentlich Frau Kienesberger, Wilh. Glaser und Jos. Zinkel. Sie sahen dabei alle die Glaslinse rötlich odglühend, also ebenso wie die Glocke der Luftpumpe von den darunter befindlichen Magneten wird, das Licht im Fokus aber weißleuchtend. ---

Herr Kotschy und Frl. Atzmannsdorfer machten mich noch besonders aufmerksam auf einen deutlichen Lichtkegel, den sie, mit der Basis auf der Linse stehend, die Spitze im Fokus sich vereinigen und so durch die Luft leuchten sahen. --- Wenn ich bei Jos. Zinkel und Wilh. Glaser den Schirm etwas weiter von der Linse hinwegrückte oder ihn mehr näherte, so sahen sie den Lichtfleck darauf jedesmal sich vergrößern. Dasselbe gab Frau Kienesberger mit dem Beisatze an, daß jedesmal, wenn ich den Schirm etwas entfernte, in der Ordnung, daß in der Mitte ein dunkelroter Fleck sich bildete, um diesen herum ein gelber Ring sich legte, der zuletzt von außen von einem breiteren blauen Ringe eingefaßt war. Wilh. Glaser, der ich überließ, den Schild im Finstern sich selbst hin und her zu rücken, bis sie ihn am Brennpunkte hatte, sah dabei bald um den gelben Kreis außen herum einen blauen Ring eintreten, bald in seiner Mitte einen blauen Fleck entstehen. Ähnliche Angaben erhielt ich von Jos. Zinkel mehrmal. Es hatte also auch hier eine Iris sich zu entwickeln begonnen. Ich selbst vermochte leider von der Erscheinungn, bei deren Lichtkonzentration ich einige Hoffnungen auf Selbstbeobachtung gebaut hatte, durchaus nichts wahrzunehmen. ---

Der Frau Baronin von Augustin legte ich zwei Magnete über einander, einen Neunblätterer und einen Siebenblätterer, und suchte dadurch den Lichteffekt zu verstärken. Sie sah auf dem Schilde einen runden Lichtfleck von ungefähr 0,15 m (Handlänge) Durchmesser. In der Mitte dieser Helle gewahrte sie eine zweite runde Stelle von 2 bis 3 Zenitmeter (Nußgröße) Durchmesser, die bedeutend stärker erleuchtet war. Dies war offenbar der Brennpunkt der Parallelstrahlen, die auf die Linse fielen. Die Frau Baronin hatte die Güte, auch diese Erscheinung, so wie sie sie sah, in Öl zu malen und damait für Jedermann zur vollen Deutlichkeit zu erheben. --- Genug auf dieselbe Weise, ebenfalls mit zwei über einander liegenen Magneten, führte ich den Versuch mit der Frau Josephine Fenzl durch. Da sie ungefähr von gleicher Stärke sensitiver Reizbarkeit ist wie die Frau Baronin von Augustin, so war es interessant, von ihr ganz dieselben Beschreibungen über Gestalt und Stärke der Lichterscheinungen auf dem Schilde zu empfangen. ---
 
Um die sensitiven Beschauer zu prüfen, macht ich in der Finstenis verschiedene Abänderungen, die sie weder wahrnehmen, noch verstehen konnten; ich rückte den Schirm vor und rückwärts, zur Seite hin und her, ich schob den Magnet nach rechts und links, drehte die Glaslinse ein wenig auf und ab; in allen diesen Fällen gaben mir die Leute Verschiebungen des Fokus an, wie sie bekannten Gesetzen der Dioptrik entsprechen, und deren Herzählung hier wohl überflüssige Weitwendigkeit wäre. Durch all dies erhielt der früher mitgeteilte Versuch mit der Frl. Reichel durch 4 kranke und 8 gesunde neue Zeugen zehnfacher Bestätigung, und ich kann nur wünschen, daß bald andere gewissenhafte Beobachter sie wiederholen und die gewonnene Tatsachen befestigen möchten
*).
*) Beim Schlusse der Verhandlungen der sogenannten Kommission der Wiener Ärzte entstand in .........   "


/Reichenbach 1850/  The Vital force

                                Vorwort der Englischen Übersetzung

"EDITOR'S PREFACE.

The present publication is the first volume of a work, in which the whole of the observations made, up to this time, by Baron VON REICHENBACH, on the very interesting and important subject on which it treats, are to be permanently placed on record; and, at the request of the Author, I have undertaken to lay these researches, as they shall appear, before the British Public.
The present volume, which includes all that has yet been published in Germany, consists of two Parts.

Part I. is a new and improved edition of that part of the work which was published by the Author in LIEBIG's Annalen, March and May 1845; but no essential alteration has been made in it. It contains a general historical Sketch and summary of the whole investigations, as made up to the latter part of 1844, when it was written; and only entere into such details as appeared necessary to establish the existente of the new Imponderable or Influence, Odyle; and to trace it in the numerous sources from which it is found to flow. These are, magnets, crystals, the human body, the sun, the moon, the starr, heat, electricity, friction,  ---Viii---   
chemical action, and the whole material universe; and the reader will find various interesting and valuable applications of the facts thus ascertained; for example, to the explanation of corpse-lights, the origin of many ghost-stories, and further on, to dietetics, &c. None of these sources of odyle are, in Part I., treated fully or minutely. The experiments detailed in it were made on upwards of twelve sensitive persons, of whom one half, those who exhibited the highest degree of sensitiveness, were females affected with various diseases of the nervous system, while the remainder were strong healthy men. It is necessary here to mention this, because in various passages, written in 1844, the Author expresses the opinion which he then held, that the sensitive state is essentially a morbid one, and that perfectly healthy persons are perhaps never sensitive. His subsequent researches, as detailed in Part II., have proved the fallacy of this opinion; but the original passages remain, and might, without explanation, puzzle the reader.

Of this First Part, or general summary of the in-vestigations down to the end of 1844, I published an Abstract early in 1846. My object in doing so, was simply to direct the attention of my countrymen to those admirable researches; and to render the work more readable and popular, I condensed the translation into about one-half the bulk of the original, without, however, omitting any essential point. The abridged portions were those consisting of minute and often repeated details of the experiments, essentially necessary, no doubt, to the permanent value of the work, as embracing the evidente produced; but not, in all their details, required for the purpose of directing  ---ix--- public attention to the subject; especially as I always intended to translate the complete work when it should appear. I was well aware, and mentioned in the preface to that Abstract, that I was not doing full justice to the Author, in omitting any part of that evidente, but I felt convinced, that in the meantime, a more popular sketch would answer better the intended purpose.

The reception of the Abstract in this country, so much more favourable than that accorded to the original on the Continent, has, I think, fully justified this abridgement. I now present to the public Part I. in its full extent, and in a permanent form; and I am persuaded that, on comparison with the Abstract, it will be found that, in every point but that of the full detail of all the numerous and similar experiments, the summary of Baron VON REICHENBACH was faithfully represented in that publication.

The very favourable manner in which my Abstract has been received in this country, demands my warmest acknowledgements. Not only was the edition very rapidly sold, but I have been, ever since 1846, favoured with letters of enquiry concerning a new edition, and of high approval of the work, so numerous, that I have found it quite impossible to return answers individually to nearly the whole of them. I beg here to apologise for all omissions, and to explain, that I should, long ere this, have republished the Abstract, had I not been in constant expectation of receiving from the Author the succeeding parts of his great work, which I had undertaken to publish in full. The present volume is, then, the commencement of that publication, delayed for reasons which are given  ---X---   in the Author's Preface. But I may here state, that the chief of these is not there sufficiently brought into view; namely, the fact, that upwards of three years were devoted by the Author, after publishing the summary in 1845, to a laborious and minute study of all the branches of the subject. The results of these three years' researches, (as far as they concern only one of these branches,) are now given in Part II., which, if published mach sooner, must necessarily have been far less complete than it now is.

It may here be mentioned, that the Abstract of Part I. was favourably noticed in various scientific and literary journals, as well as in the daily press. Indeed, up to this time, I have not become acquainted with any scientific criticisms, published in this country, an the Author's researches, which require any notice from me in this place. This, as will be seen by the Author's Preface, forms a strong and favourable contrast with the reception given to Part I. by various men of science in Germany. It is pleasing to reflect, that a work so truly scientific in its character, has, in spite of the startling nature of the facts recorded in it, received from the British public that respectful and becoming attention, to which, from the known scientific reputation of its Author, it was justly entitled. It must be gratifying to the numerous English readers of the Abstract to know, and to this I can myself testify, that the lamented BERZELIUS took a very deep interest in the investigation, and expressed, in a letter to the Editor, his conviction, that it could not possibly have been in better hands than those of Baron von REICHENBACH.
So much in reference to Part I.  ---Xi---

Part II. consists of several sections. In the first, the Author enumerates, by name, upwards of fifty new sensitive persons, of whom thirty-five are perfectly healthy and vigorous, yet among whom he has found all degrees of sensitiveness, even to the highest, and whose descriptions and statements exhibit a perfect harmony. It is unnecessary here to enter into any detail. In the second section, the author institutes a minute comparison of the new influence, odyle, with the known influences or imponderables, heat, electricity, and magnetism (proper); and establishes, in a very beautiful and convincing manner, both its great analogy to these, and the striking differentes which compel him to distinguish it from them, and which leave no choice, for the present, but that of giving it a distinct place and name, although future discoveries may possibly enable us to refer all the imponderables to a common forte. But that time is still distant; and, in every event, a name will be required for the new group of distinct phenomena, just as we find it necessary to apply the names of magnetism and electricity to two such groups, the close relation, and possibly common origin, of which must be universally admitted. These sections constitute the Introduction.

The third, and chief section of Part II. is a very fall, minute, and able developement of the various forms, characters, and properties of the light given out by magnets of all kinds, and visible, in the dark, to the sensitive. It may here be mentioned, that the Author now finds fully one-third of people in general to be more or leas sensitive. This, as far as my own observations extend, I am inclined to consider as not  ---Xii--- exaggerated. The highest degree of sensitiveness is comparatively rare, but is still common enough, even among the healthy. This, the light from magnets, is the only form of odylic light treated of in Part II. The observations, generally, of the fifty new sensitives, are first given. Then come, specially, the forms of the light, such as glow, flames, fibrous downy light, scintillations, and luminous nebulae, vapours, smoke, and clouds; to which is subjoined a most ingenious theory of the spectres and demons of the Walpurgisnacht on the mountains of the Harz forest. Next, we have the effects produced on it by different media, such as rarefied air, or the vacuum, water, and solid media. The colours of the odylic light of magnets are then treated of; and the Author demonstrates in it the presence of all the prismatic colours, very often in the form of a regular Iris; with many other highly interesting details. The next investigates most successfully, and with most beautiful results, the remarkable effects produced on the light and its colours, by the varied positions of the magnet, and by the magnetism of the earth. Lastly, he examines the effects of giving to the polen of magnets differently-shaped terminations, and of employing disc-shaped and spherical magnets. The results are singularly beautiful and interesting.

The last section consists of an application of these most remarkable observations, to the explanation of the Aurora Borealis, which, in fact, the Author had produced, with all its characteristic phenomena in high intensity and perfection, and in a form visible to the sensitive, in the last mentioned experiments with spherical magnets. To the consideration of this subject, ---xiii--- the Author brings a vast store of valuable information, and all the resources of a mind accomplished in physical science. The result is, a theory or explanation of the aurora, which must, I think, be admitted to have the highest probability; and to be, in the present state of our knowledge, the best within our reach. The reader is referred to this very striking chapter for all details.

Such is a very brief and condensed sketch of the contents of Part II., which, as the reader is aware, now appears for the first time.

I have not felt justified in omitting any part of the Author's Preface, or of his notes, both of which are controversial, and may appear to some rather energetic in their tone. But as they contain the Author's replies to attacks of a very violent and unjustifiable kind, which have been widely circulated in Germany, and may possibly have influenced such as have read them in this country, I thought it but just to let him be heard. It is at all times deeply to be regretted, when scientific discussions assume an angry or acrimonious tone but in this case, there was nothing in Part I. to justify the style in which it was treated; and consequently, the introduction of unscientific language into the discussion, must be ascribed to those who so unsparingly employed it in their criticisms, if indeed we can truly give that name to such productions, written, as they are, without due knowledge, eitler of the subject or of the work.

I might here conclude; but although, in this country, no such irrational and unwarrantable attacks have appeared, yet I have occasionally met, in private, with  ---XIV----persons disposed, like the German critics, to reject the whole iuvestigation, without even giving it a careful study, or indeed any study at all. I have further observed, to a certain extent, the prevalence of very erroneous views as to the proper objects of scientific enquiry, and especially as to the true nature and value of scientific evidente, in relation to obscure and difficult subjects. I trust, therefore, the reader will excuse me, if I venture to trespass on his patience with some brief remarks on there points.

And first, as to the objects of enquiry. It may be safely laid down, that no well-ascertained fact, or series of facts, can possibly exist in nature, which are not worthy of our earnest study. It is no answer to say, that there are many facts of no practical value; for the fallacy of such an assertion has been too often proved, by the unexpected application of apparently trifling facts to important purposes, theoretical as well as practical. When LIEBIG and SOUBEIRAN first described a peculiar volatile fragrant liquid, produced by the action of bleaching powder on alcohol, this fact was recorded, and stood for many years in our manuals, as a mere curiosity of science. Yet when the time tarne, this insignificant compound, under the hands of my accomplished colleague, Dr. SIMPSON, started up into the highest practical value, as CHLOROFORM. Had all the properties of this body been at first carefully studied, we should not have had to wait till 1846 or 1847 for this boon to suffering humanity. It would be easy to fill a volume with parallel cases, from the Steam Engine to Gun Cotton, all proving the great truth, that no natural fact is insignificant or unimportant.   ---XV---

Secondly; as to the question, whether the phenomena studied in this work be facts or not; I may safely leave this to the decision of the careful reader of the work; and I shall only express my conviction, that if those facts be not facts, then do no facts exist in any department of science.

Thirdly; as to the mode of investigation adopted by the Author it is the inductive method, the same to which we owe all the progress of modern science; and in which the conclusions are deduced from carefully observed phenomena, varied by experiments performed with due attention to accuracy. No other method is known, by which natural phenomena, and especially obscure natural phenomena, can be investigated with any chance of success.

This method has been most diligently, laboriously, and successfully applied by the Author to a dass of phenomena, which might perhaps be considered at once more obscure and more interesting than those which form the objects of many other departments of science, if it could justly be said that one part of nature is more interesting than another. I feel constrained to say, that in the course of a life devoted to science, I have met with no researches in which the true and universally approved rules of investigation have been more perfectly adhered to and followed out, than in those before us; which, were it necessary, might serve as a model to all experimental inquirers.

The qualifications of the Author for such an inquiry are of the very highest kind. He possesses a thorough scientific education, combined with extensive knowledge. His life has been devoted to science, and to its application to the practical purposes of mankind.   ---XVi---

He is known as a distinguished improver of the iron manufacture in bis own native country, Austria. He is a thorough practical Chemist; and, by his well known researches on Tar, has acquired a very high position. But in Geology, Physics, and Mineralogy, he has been equally active. In particular, he is the highest living authority on the subject of meteorites or aerolites, of which remarkable bodies he possesses a magnificent collection. Of his knowledge on this subject, good use is made in this work.

But these are the least of his qualifications. He has a turn of mind, observing, minute, accurate, patient, and persevering, in a rare degree. All his previous researches bear testimony to this; and, at the same time, prove that he possesses great ingenuity and skill in devising and performing experiments; great sagacity in reflection on the results; and, more important than all, extreme caution in adopting conclusions; reserve in propounding theories; and conscientiousness in reporting his observations. He has been found fault with for too great minuteness of detail; but this fault, if in such matters it be a
arises from his intense love of truth and accuracy; a quality which, when applied to such researches as the present, becomes invaluable, and cannot easily be pushed to excess.

It therefore appears, that BERZELIUS, who well knew the value of the Author's labours, was right in saying, that the investigation could not be in better hands. Having myself been familiar with the Author's writings, and in frequent correspondence with himself, for twen ty years, I have here ventured to add myhumble testimony to that of the great Swedish philosopher.  ---XVii---

Let me now turn, for a short time, to the objections which have been brought against these researches, as far as they have come to my knowledge.
The first is, that his observations (in Part I.) are made on diseased subjects, and are therefore of no value. Without dwelling on the fact, that, even in Part I. theAuthor has produced numerous observations on healthy persona; while, in Part II., the observations are chiefly confined to the healthy; I would observe, in answer to this objection.

That it possesses no cogency in itself, inasmuch as a natural fact is not the lese a fact, nor the less worthy of study, because it occurs as a morbid Symptom. Everything here depends on how the facts occurring in diseased subjects, are ascertained and examined. And it is not likely that they will soon be better observed than by the Author.

But further, many of the best-ascertained facts in medicine rest on the statements of nervous patients. If some hysterical subjects exhibit great uncertainty in their statements, and even occasionally a tendency to deceit, this is itself a symptom worthy of investigation; and if such things render our researches more difficult, this should only stimulate us to increased care and accuracy in observing. It is clearly impossible to maintain, that the phenomena presented by nervous patients cannot be studied and ascertained; that they ought to be so studied, may be held to be equally clear.

But once more, in such of the Author's observations as were made with patients, more or less nervous, he had, even in Part I., the concurring testimony of five or six of these, affected with different diseases,  ---xviii---   and separately examined, to the existence of the phe-nomena which he described. This alone, in such hands as his, is a sufficient guarantee for the existence of these phenomena as objective realities.

Another objection is, that in these researches, the Author observes, not with bis own senses, but with those of others; and that the results, therefore, must be unworthy of confidence.

In answer to this, I would remark, in the first place, that innumerable facts, for example those of medicine, in many cases, are thus observed. No physician euer saw or felt a pain, such as a headache, a toothache, or a twinge of neuralgia, described by his patient, nor a sensation of cold, or of best, or of confusion of head, or of nausea, or of faintness; and yet no one doubts the existence of these sensations, which are, as the careful reader will see, almost the very same sensations as are caused in the sensitive by powerful magnets, by crystals, and by other odylic agencies, including the human hand. In like manner, numerous cases are on record, in which the patient, not the physician, saw visions, spectres, flaches of light, &c. The existence of these as sueective phenomena, has never been doubted; neither are we entitled to doubt of the subjective existence of similar sensations, when described by sensitive persons, although we cannot see them. And when, as in the present case, we also find that these subjective phenomena are uniformly produced, in many different persons, by the same external causes, we cannot deny to those causes, or to their effects, an objective existence also. We know nothing of the light of the sun, save by its effect on our senses; a blind man knows nothing of it save by  ---XiX--- its effects on the senses of others, as reported to him by them : and those who do not happen to be sensitive, can only learn any thing of odylic light by the reports of the sensitive, with this great advantage over the blind man, that they can themselves vary the conditions of experiments, and, knowing what light and colours are, can fully understand the accounts of those who see them. Everything, here again, depends on the sagacity and skill of the observer. The list of sensitive persons in Part II. contains the names of several scientific men and physicians, some of them well known and distinguished. It may therefore be anticipated with confidence, that, before long, a sensitive philosopher will be found, able and willing to devote himself to this most attractive investigation. His sensitiveness will no doubt facilitate his researches; but it will not add any new weight to the Author's results, which, although observed in these very difficult circumstances, have been obtained in a manner which, as far as they extend, leaves nothing to be desired on this head.

But further, this method of research, by the medium of others, is often, from the necessity of the case, resorted to in other branches of physical science. It is very common for a geologist, or a meteorologist, for example, to build up interesting and valuable speculations on what he considers the trustworthy accounts given by others, of what he himself has not seen. The Aurora Borealis is a case in point. Most of the later speculations on this point are founded on the descriptions given by those who have seen this meteor in its native polar regions; but these speculations proceed from persons who perhaps never saw, or have only  ---xx--- rarely seen the imperfect Aurora of lower latitudes. The essential point is, to make sure of the competency and accuracy of the observer. A French commission has lately visited these regions, for the purpose of studying that and other arctic phenomena. But no one will ever dream of objecting to the use which will certainly be made of these observations, by many who may never have seen an Aurora at all, and certainly have not seen those which were observed by the commission. Now, the sensitives of Baron von REICHENBACH, a majority of whom are intelligent and educated persons, have observed the whole series of auroral phenomena, invisible to him, but most beautifully visible to them, as produced in his magnetic spheres. And he has had the double advantage, denied to those who will make use of the observations of the French commission; first, of produciny, varying, and intensifying the phenomena at pleasure; secondly, of cross-examining the observers, with the phenomena actually under their eyes. lt may be possible to imagine more favourable circumstances than these, although such are not likely to be realised; but at least there is no impossibility inherent in the method.

The next objection is, that the observations are founded on falsehood, deceit, and imposture in the sensitive subjects which of course implies, that the experimenter has been their dupe, if not their accomplice. Indeed, this has not always been left to implication. Now, it is hardly necessary to point out, that it would not be easy to deceive a practised observer, like the Author, even in one case; and we cannot possibly be more secure of the truth and honour of any observer than of his. But to believe, that from  ---xxi--- six to twelve impostors, as in Part I., or sixty, as in Part II., could all succeed in deceiving the person who had it in his power to compare their statements, and that their separate false statements should perfectly agree together, demands an amount of credulity which could not possibly hesitate at the marvels of Munchausen. The dass of sceptics here alluded to are as profoundly credulous of evil, as they are irrationally incredulous of phenomena which appear inconsistent with their preconceived notions of nature.
But this is not all; for I maintain, that under such circumstances as those of the present case, to assert the existente of fraud an the part of persons of blameless character, without evidente of the fact, and simply because their statements, in an obscure and difficult matter of physical science, appear at first sight absurd or incredible, is to sin against common justice and good feeling, in a manner for which no justification can be found. And to do this, as it will be seen by the Author's Preface certain authorities have done, without any investigation of the subject, or even of the work criticised, is a mode of proceeding in questions of natural science, against which every one who values truth, and has the progress of human knowledge sincerely at heart, is bound, in the name of science, most energetically to protest.

Dr. Dubois REYMOND has thought fit to express, without quoting one word to justify it, an opinion of the work and of the Author, the only effect of which, if it had any effect, would be to disparage them, unexamined and unheard, in the public opinion. But it will, sooner or later, have a very different effect, namely, that of proving to the world the incapacity,  ---xxii--- (from want of due acquaintance with the subject,) of the critic for the tack he undertook, or rather, with most insulting expressions, declined to undertake. I shall not imitate the style of this critic. I know that the experiments of Dr. DUBOIS REYMOND on the developement of electric currents during muscular action, have justly given him a high reputation in physiology. But he will allow me to suggest, that if he could not enter into the details of the Author's researches, he could have no right to enter on a course of denunciatory criticism and virulent abuse. He is a Young man of merit in physiological science, who has rashly pronounced on a work which he has not studied. But as his sentence, however unjust and rash, may yet do harm, I have thought it my dutyalthough otherwise I should not have felt justified in doing so—to record, as I have done above, in opposition to the hasty judgment of Dr. DUBOIS REYMOND, (formed without a careful study, or indeed any study, of the Author's work,) that which I have formed, after long and minute acquaintance with them, both of the work itself, and of the very high qualifications of its Author. 1 would add, that Dr. DUBOIS REYMOND'S own experiments might have taught him a more just view of the subject. If electric currents exist, as cannot be doubted, in the body, do we not know that every substance through which such a current passes, becomes, for the time, a magnet ? Why, therefore, if the critic read any part of the work, should he recoil from the conclusion, that in the body may be found magnetism, or a forte which in magnets is always associated with magnetism ? The experiments of the critic contradict bis criticism, and add new  ---XXiii--- support to the previously published views of the Author.

There is one more point, on which I would offer a few remarks. This is, the bearing of the Author's researches on the subject of Somnambulism, and on that of Mesmerism.

It will be obvious to the attentive reader, that the highest or extreme degree of sensitiveness to the new influence, is found in spontaneous somnambulists, but not confined to the somnambulistic state. Somnambulism takes its place, along with nervousness, spasms, catalepsy, &c. as an indication of a state of the system favourable to the developement of sensitiveness, but not at all essential to it. Spontaneous somnambulism is of very frequent occurrence; so frequent indeed, that it is only wonderful that there should ever have existed doubts as to the possibility of inducing it by artificial means.

This leads us to what is called the mesmeric state, which is merely somnambulism, artificially produced. Its existente in this way is now generally, I may say universally admitted; while yet, hitherto, we could not in any way account for the fact, that one human being is able to produce this state in another, and that, too, without contact. Now, the Author's discoveries show us, that a force, or influence, analogous to heat, electricity, and magnetism, but distinct from all, exists in the human body; and that a large number of persons are more or leas sensitive to this influence.

MESMER and others produced powerful effects by using magnets and other means; and this is now cleared up, by the discovery that the new force residing in the human body, does also reside, not only in ---XXiV--- magnets, but in all other bodies. The conclusion  naturally is, that these forces are identical. There is a fluid (or imponderable power, or influence) which is not ordinary magnetism, and which acta strongly on the system. Thus the crude observations of MESMER and his followers, which were overlaid and discredited by their gratuitous and often absurd theories, are brought into a coherent physical shape; and the reader will find, not only that they are reduced to purely physical causes, but that the contradictions, failures, inconsistencies, and confusion of the earlier mesmeric observations, are also referred to their true physical origin. Even the mesmeric baquet ceases to be a mystery to us.

In short, the Author has shewn that these most obscure natural phenomena, like all others, admit of being studied as a part of physical science, and that they will well repay the investigator. But the reader will observe that the Author, preferring to begin at the beginning, has not, in these researches, studied the new phenomena on persons in the mesmeric state.

The phenomena of mesmerism, or artificial som-nambulism, are natural facts. Like all facts, they ought to be studied, and if, hitherto, the subject has presented results from which mang recoil, it should be borne in mind, that men of science have, in general, refused to investigate it, and that the only way to obtain true and valuable results, is to apply to these phenomena the method I have endeavoured above to illustrate, as the Author has done, to a closely allied dass of phenomena. The dose connection between the two classes of facts may be easily illustrated.  ---XXV---

Every one knows, that one of the statements most frequently made by persons in the mesmeric or sleepwaking state is this, that they see flames issuing from the points of the operator's fingere; nay, some are reported to have seen this when in the ordinary waking state. These statements have been ridiculed and decried as absurd, and denounced as wilfully false; but these denunciations have been fulminated without a shadow of proof. And now these researches prove, that a large proportion of mankind possess the power of seeing these flames. The mesmeric fact, therefore, is confirmed and established by the Author's observations on persons not in the mesmeric state. The same remark applies to the strong influence exerted by magnets on the system, to the production of what is called magnetised (properly odylised) water, and to various other phenomena. But these things are only alluded to here, as it is only in Part III., not yet published, that the Author treats fully of odyle in its relations to the human frame.
The objections so commonly urged against mesmeric observations, are the very same as those which we have discussed above in reference to the researches of the Author; namely, the impossibility or ineredibility of the facts, and the supposed existente of fraud and imposture. I need not repeat what I have before said; but I may here add, that nothing can possibly be more contrary to all scientific rules, than to reject a fact simply because it appears to us incredible or impossible, or because we taunot account for it. We can account for nothing, in any department of science, in the sense of explaining why it occurs; we can only observe and establish facts, classify them under some  ---XXVi--- common law, and trace their mutual connections. We can as little explain gravitation as we can magnetic attraction; our nightly sleep we can explain as little as we can the mesmeric sleep; but we can study both, and determine the laws which regulate them; and it is our duty to do this, to the best of our abilities, in the latter case, as well as in the former. Nor is it possible for us to declare, ä priori, what things are possible, and what are impossible, in any case short of mathematical impossibility. Our opinions an these points can only bear reference to what we know of nature, and even NEWTON felt how insignificant was the extent of that knowledge, when compared to the vast mass of truth which is still unknown.
As to the cry of fraud and imposture, it is, in a scientific investigation, utterly inadmissible, for the reasons formerly stated, and mang others. Let us for a moment try to imagine the possibility of all the hundreds and thousands who have been, and daily are, mesmerised, being all impostors, while all the operators, if not equally deceitful, are themselves deceived. Let us bear in mind, that this accusation is commonly and recklessly brought, by those who have neuer investigated the subject, not only against those who have done so, but against persons of great ability, and of unblemished character and honour, and generally without a shadow of evidente; let us do this, and we must come, I think, to the conclusion, that such a line of argument is as irrational, unjust, and dishonest in itself, as it is void of all cogency in Opposition to observed and established facts.
I am far from denying the possibility of the attempt to deceive in mesmerism, especially when made the  ---XXVii--- subject of public exhibitions, or practised with a view to excite wonder. But this cannot apply to experiments made, as thousands have been, and as all ought to be, in the privacy of the philosopher's study, without any such motive coming into play. And were deceit attempted, there is no doubt that one who knew the art of experimenting would as easily be able to detect it in mesmeric experiments, as the Author could do in his researches. But while I admit the possibility of such a thing, and while I would look with suspicion an the exhibitions of those who only make a trade of mesmerism, yet in all the cases, private or public, which I have had an opportunity of seeing, I am bound to say that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, no deceit was even thought of; and, indeed, I believe that it was not required. Nature is more wonderful than any forgery of man's invention. I have repeatedly myself produced mesmeric phenomena in persons as incapable of deceit as any that can be found, even among sceptics. And, in short, without the most stringent proof, the charge of fraud is not for a moment to be tolerated. But even were fraud established in one or more cases, this could not affect other cases, in which no fraud was probable, or even possible.

That there is something worthy of research in these phenomena, all who have either personally studied them, or carefully read the existing evidente, admit; the best security against fraud is the utmost possible knowledge of the subject, which can only be obtained by men of scientific training and turn of mind devoting their energies to it. If this be duly done, the cry of imposture will soon die away, and mesmerism  ---XXViii---will take its natural and proper place as a branch of natural science.

If there be any phenomena which, in a certain sense, we might be entitled to call incredible, they are those of clairvoyance. I do not profess myself to have seen these; and, from their comparatively rare occurrence, a rational incredulity is here excusable. But even in this part of the subject the existing evidence, a great part of which rests on testimony which is of the highest character, cannot be disposed of by any amount of incredulity. We must carefully distinguish between the facts themselves, and the various, often absurd explanations and theories which unsci-entific observers seem to think it necessary to devise, and insist on giving; while others, before admitting the facts, require them to be explained, as if the truth of a fact depended on our being able to account for it. All this is unscientific. There are facts, of the most interesting kind, connected with this part of the subject; and we need not doubt that, if studied in the right spirit, these facts will one day admit of a natural physical explanation, as far at least as any natural fact can be explained. The example, indeed, above given, of the flames at the point of the fingere, proves that there is a physical cause for some, as we shall sooner or later find there is for all, of the mesmeric phenomena. But further, even clairvoyance has not unfrequently, as we know from the best authority, occurred, just as somnambulism and cataleptic rigidity have done, spontaneously, without the use of any mesmerising process whatever. It is, therefore, independently of mesmerism, a fact to be investigated according to the usual rules of science.  ---XXiX---

I have ventured to make this digression, because I am firmly convinced that the example set by the Author, in thus studying the more obscure and difficult natural phenomena, will be followed, and with the most desirable results, in the allied subject of mesmerism; and that, until scientific men take the trouble to investigate mesmerism in this manner, they are not entitled to pronounce an off-hand judgment, still less an injurious judgment, on the labours of those who, perhaps with fewer qualifications, but certainly with equal love of truth, have undertaken the investigation which they have themselves neglected.
To return to the Author's experiments. He has, by the minutest instructions, put it in the power of every one to repeat them. It is hardly necessary to point out, that, in repeating them, if we wish to obtain or to control his results, we must strictly attend to the conditions; indeed, this is so obviously necessary, that I should not have alluded to it, had not the proceedings of certain physicians in Vienna, in what they intended for an experimental refutation of the Author's conclusions, furnished evidente that even educated men, who might be supposed to be acquainted with science, may in the grossest manner violate this essential and simple rule. For some almost incredible details on this subject, I refer to the Author's notes at p. 354 and p. 370.

I have now to add, that I have myself repeated some of the Author's experiments, and have found, as was to be expected, that his account of the phenomena was perfectly accurate. For a few details, the reader is referred to the Appendix. (A.)
---XXX---

There is no difficulty in finding sensitive subjects; but it is not so easy to make good and trustworthy observations when we have found them.

I have reason to know that many persona have made similar observations, in confirmation of those of the Author. One gentleman, well-known as a lover of science, has favoured me with some of his, which will also be found in the Appendix. (B.)

Those who have thus had an opportunity, or who may hereafter have an opportunity, of thus confirming, illustrating, or correcting the observations of the Author, will confer an me a very great obligation by privately communicating to me the results they have obtained or may obtain; which, or a selection of which, with their permission, I should wish to add to the future parts of this work. But it will be still more desirable, that such observers should publish their results separately.
Finally, with regard to the translation; I have en-deavoured, in every case, to adhere rigidly to the meaning of the Author, even where, from the peculiarity of the German idiom, or of the Author's characteristic style, which is not always easily rendered, it has been necessary, (and this has often been the case,) totally to change the form of the sentence. It has been my endeavour to produce a readable English work, as far as the nature of the subject, and the very frequent occurrence of technical terms and of necessary repetitions of nearly identical details, would permit.

Part III., which will treat in detail of the odylic phenomena in their connection with, and their effects ---XXXl--- on, the human frame, will be published as soon as the original appears. The subject of somnambulism necessarily comes under discussion, and most interesting and valuable results may be expected from the Author's method of investigating that subject.
WILLIAM GREGORY.
114 PRINCES STREET, EDINBURGH,
16th April 1850.
 

AUTHOR'S PREFACE
TO THK

SECOND EDITION OF PART I.
THE Seven Treatises which form this work were in-tended to appear successively in the monthly numbers of LIEBIG and WöHLER's Annalen der Chemie, and were sent to the Editor in time for their publication to have commenced in July 1844. But accidental circumstances prevented this, and thus it happened that they were collected in two separate supplementary numbers of the Annalen, and published for the first time in March and May 1845. This will explain the somewhat unusual form in which they appear.

In this Second Edition, some things have been corrected; but, an the whole, the work has undergone no essential alteration. My researches, continued without interruption since it appeared, have confirmed and more strongly established the observations recorded in it. I have thought it right not to abandon the half historical, half systematic course which I had pursued in detailing my observations, and presenting the views deduced from them; for this is the real course of all natural science, in which the correction of former errors always keeps pace with the extension of our knowledge. 

---XXXiii---
It was easy to foresee, that a matter of so strange and peculiar a kind, as the subject embraced in these researches, would meet with objections; and I was prepared beforehand for the necessity of defending my experiments, and the conclusions deduced from them, against both well-founded and gro und I ess Opposition and contradiction. The new field of investigation here opened up, advances its limits so near to the bulwarks of existing and established doctrines, and comes in contact at so mang points with all that is known of the imponderables, that it was not to be expected that it should be allowed to take its place in the crowded domain of science, without much resistance. Yet I was only prepared for rational judgment and criticism; for, here and there, failures in repeating my experiments, arising from errors in the necessary arrange-ments; for Opposition to the conclusions deduced from these experiments; or for the announcement of different conclusions or deductions from the recorded facts. I was not, I confess, prepared for an attack, (which every friend to science, possessed of good feeling and good manners, must agree with me in considering illbred in the extreme,) made on my work, and on myself personally, by a Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND, in KARSTEN's Progress of Physiology in the year 1845. This philosopher does not think it necessary in the smallest degree to enter into my experiments and deductions; but, from his lofty eminente, entitles my labours, courtly enough, " an absurd romance, to enter into the details of which would be fruitless, and to him impossible." I have no doubt of the truth of both statements. It would be fruitless, because he did not understand the work; and a foolish judgment on that ---xxxiv--- which we do not understand, must be fruitless; and impossible, because he did not read the work connectedly, and it is impossible to enter into the details of a matter, into which we have not taken pains to acquire some insight. Now, that he did not read my work, but only turned over the leaves in the manner of superficial and unconscientious reviewers, he proves by abusing it as " the new testament of mesmerism," and consequently showing that he has not seen that my work is the very first in this department, which, in most points, goes exactly in the teeth of the theories of MESMER, and places the phenomena on a totally different foundation. My critic goes on, in a feeble attempt at wit, to describe himself as having been " greeted by the magnetic baquet, and the wretched magical trash of Baron VON REICHENBACH;" &c., and therefore he has not read that it is precisely my work, which banishes for ever the "baquet and the wretched magical trash" of MESMER, by tearing down the weil that hid his mysteries, reducing them to their naked physical existente, and substituting sober scientific investigation in the room of all the old phantas-magoria. But ever since science has existed, ignorance has assumed the right of judging and condemning that which it could not understand. The polite and well-bred Berlin physiologist is then pleased to cast in my face a few common places, such as—my work is " one of the most deplorable aberrations that has for a long time affected a human brain;" my statements are " fables, which should be thrown into the fire;" and many similar learned vulgarities.

He who assumes the right publicly to sit in judgment, and to pronounce sentence on a scientific work, ---xxxv---  is, before all things, bound in duty to inform himself thoroughly of its contents; and he is further bound to support his sentence, as all public judges do, by the reasons on which he thinks himself justified in pronouncing it. This duty is the more indispensably incumbent on him, because his judgment is one-sided, and requires the control of public opinion; moreover, the Author whose work is judged, is justly entitled to have the means of defending it, But a judgment, affecting the truth and honour of the Author of such a work, and which the judge is not ashamed to send forth without fulfilling any one of these conditions, is, in one word, nothing but impudent; and that too, in a degree perhaps unexampled in modern or in ancient literature. For surely, it never before happened in any country, that a reviewer had the audacity, or rather the folly, to treat a scientific work, without giving any reasons, without quoting a syllable of its contents, merely with gross and ill-bred abuse. I say folly, because it is folly to cast stones which we may see will certainly fall on our own heads. Either my statements contain natural truths, which have a constant existente in the physical world, and must therefore sooner or later be acknowledged, and must cover the ignorant reviewer with disgrace; or they rest on great errors, and then it must be easy for bim to perform his duty of discovering and explaining these, and thus secure himself against the reproach of unconscientious levity in regard to the reputation of his fellow-man. Only narrow-mindedness and folly could, without reflection, expose themselves at once to both dangers.

Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND further thinks, that he could ---xxxvi--- not enter into the details of my work, " because it would at least be impossible for him not to be guilt y of using unparliamentary language in doing so."—The insolences with which he has loaded me are not sufficiently unparliamentary, not rude enough for him; he has a store of expressions of yet coarser calibre. He has given us proofs of the delicacy and good feeling which restrain him from using these; but now I shall save bim the trouble of all further hypocrisy, and teil the real truth for him. He has not the courage to venture on an examination of the details of my treatises. The matter is not one which lies on the surface; the recorded facts cannot be destroyed off-hand by mere flippancy; and the conclusions logically deduced from them, are not to be washed away with critical ink. But a thorough examination of such a work is troublesome and laborious; this is annoying, possibly fruitless, possibly even giving rise to serious misgivings. And as, unless he take all this trouble, he cannot attack the details of the work, without the risk of pronouncing an immature and rash decision, he dares not enter into these details, for fear of afterwards feeling the scourge of the Author. It is far easier and cheaper, to pass, with unworthy superficiality, only over the outside of a subject, daubing it here and there with mire, to lower it in the public estimation, and then to run away under cowardly and hypocritical pretences. I beg Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND, in regard to his entering into the details of my work, not to place the smallest restraint on himself on my account; I challenge him to the arena, with all his " unparliamentary expressions" from the banks of the Spree; and I give him my word, that he shall find me there, ---xxxvii---  and that he shall receive exactly such an answer as he deserves.

It is in the nature of every experimental inquiry, that it cannot be free from defects. It is because we feel these defects in our knowledge that we make experiments, in order to complete the former, by newly discovered and newly acquired knowledge. But while thus employed, we observe ten, nay, a hundred new gaps or blanks; and the reader, on his part, probably observes a dozen, which have escaped the notice of the experimenter; the reviewer perhaps detects many more. It is most desirable that these should all be publicly announced and brought under discussion, that the Author, or others, may investigate the matter further on all sides, or fortify what he has already won against all doubts. This is advantageous to all, even to the discoverer of every new scientific fact. My labours will as little be found to be without defects, as those of men standing much higher than I do have ever been thus perfect, and least of all in the natural sciences. No one can have felt this more strongly than myself. Every notice of any deficiency, expressed with proper feeling, I shall thankfully receive, and experimentally improve my work accordingly. But lofty insolence, stained, moreover, with the most glaring ignorante of the work reviewed, must be driven back and confined to its due limits. It is not only my interest, it is the interest of all those who labour and who write on scientific subjects, that euch weeds should be rooted out and swept away, and not allowed to flourish in the garden of science.

That, in point of fact, men standing far higher than I do, are not exempt from the greatest errors in their ---xxviii--- labours in natural science, is not merely an assertion inade to excuse the defects of my own work, but one which I shall at once prove. M. JOHANNES MUELLER, our great physiologist, and the pride of Germany, whose admirable writings are an oracle to his contemporaries, in his Manual of Human Physiology, (fourth edition, I. 26.) not in a notice of my work, but when speaking of the " so called animal magnetism, of magnetic passes, of laying on of the hands, and of the passage, from one person to another, of the so called magnetic fluid," uses the follo wing words:
" These histories are, however, a deplorable labyrinth of lies, deceit, and superstition;* and they have only proved, how ill qualified are most physicians to make an empirical investigation, and how little they know of that principle of testing a subject, which in all the other natural sciences has become the universal method."

But what now, if it should appear, that it is, on the contrary, M. MUELLER, who himself lives and moves in that "deplorable labyrinth ?" What if it be precisely in my work, that there are to be found adduced the very testings which he recommends, pursued exactly according to the method universally followed in all other natural sciences ?—And what, lastly, if, by these very testings, hundreds of facts, proving the actual existente of such a fluid, or imponderable, or dynamide, or influence (whatever name be given to it), which, by means of passes, of laying on of hands, and of transference or communication, produces astounding
Prof. MUELLER is here too hasty in hin conclusion. What follows is not only quite true, but of great importance. Hut it does not, and cannot affect more than the mode of reaearch usually followed in theac matter, not the facts themselves which arte to bo investigated.—W. G.
---xxxix---
physical and physiological effects,—what, I say, if hundreds of such facts have been thus as plainly exbibited and as fully demonstrated as any other physical or physiological truth can possibly be, and by that very inductive method of research ?—Surely, in this case, we may say, and we must say, that even the great MUELLER has erred seriously in a matter, on which he has permitted himself to deliver a condemnatory and injurious judgment, without having previously investigated it; and that, in the next edition of his Manual, he will cancel that hasty passage. What I have mentioned must be regarded as a striking example of the extent to which men of the highest abilities, and the most distinguished in science, may be guilty of the greatest blunders, when under the influence of prejudice and of preconceived opinions; and may commit errors of an extent so incredible, that the very reproach which they bitterly and unsparingly cast on others, finds the most direct application to themselves, and returns on their own head.

Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND is, as he himself informs us in the 58th volume of POGGENDORFF'S Annalen, under the influence, in scientific matters, of Prof. J. MUELLER, is probably also bis pupil, and, in his just veneration for his highly distinguished teacher, feels bound Jurare in verba magistri; for we may see, that his attack, in which he does me the honour to attribute to me " the most deplorable aberration that has, for a long time, affected a human brain," coincides almost literally with the " deplorable labyrinth of lies," &c. of M. MUELLER; (both philosophers appear to possess an abundant stock of compassion for deplorably erring authors;) and where M. MUELLER speaks of lies ---XL---  and imposture, Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND thinks to give me pain by dark hints, tending to bring me into suspicion; such as " the hidden, but real and proper foundation, and the concealed object" of my work. But these gentlemen cannot, in this case, see the forest for the trees.* They hear of an unconnected mass of the most strange and singular phenomena iil nervous patients; but their system has no rubric for such things, and the Doctors, astonished and perplexed, immediately suspect deceit, to the amusement and often the indignation of the leas prejudiced byestanders. Thus, an one occasion, a grisette in Berlin cooled her anger by applying her fingers to the ears of one of the learned schoolmen; and when he saw, in the glass, that these organs were assuming an alarming degree of longitude under the operation, he shouted, " Treason !" " Imposture !" and then every thing which, in a thousand shapes, urgently knocks for admission at the door of calm and reflective testing and study, is remorselessly kicked down stairs, without a hearing, as " lies and imposture and superstition."—This is a very convenient way of saving ourselves the trouble of a thorough investigation; but it is as hasty and one-sided as it is unscientific and unconscientious.

Every natural science, and every branch of a natural science, raust at first pass through a period of darkness and error. Physics were preceded by magic, chemistry by the art of making gold, medicine by the elixir of life and the philosopher's stone, astronomy by
 "Sie sehen den Wald vor lauter Bäumen nicht," a very expressive Ger-man proverb, applied to such es allow their attention to be distracted from the eseence of a matter by trifiing difficulties in the detail& lt is here truly applicable, wbere the bngbear of fancied impostnre blinde men to facto.—W. G.
---XLi----
astrology, &c. &c. Philosophy, theology, and jurisprudence, have alike had a period, during which, if we may so speak, they sowed their wild oats. Our first notions have always been indistinct, confused, and hence favourable to the marvellous, to the mysterious, and to superstition, and liable to abuse. But it did not follow from this, that the enigmatical shell did not conceal a solid nucleus of truth. It is entirely according to the nature of the thing, and therefore exactly what might have been expected, that the subject of sensitiveness (as I have used the term), and the peculiar forte lying at the root of its phenomena, should have had to pass through such a period of infancy in our notions and conceptions of it; and this the more, on the one hand, the leas we were able to isolate or confine it; and, on the other band, the deeper it was seen to penetrate into the, to us, mysterious and concealed sphere of nervous manifestation. But that this tottering period of infancy has, in this case, already continued for nearly three quarters of a century, certainly too long for our enlightened times, is due, for the greater part, to the almost criminal and selfish Opposition of the cultivators of the exact sciences, who met the most striking and interesting facts, not only with deaf ears, but even with a sort of senseless hostility. Baron BERZELIUS, whose loss science must long deplore, and who, as is well known, took a warm interest in my researches, assured me that he had, during forty years, always entertained the wish that this subject, wbich, from the multitude of the recorded and continually recurring facts, could not possibly be destitute of all real foundation in truth, might be taken up by some one, who ---XLii--- should make it the object of a special and thorough investigation and testing, according to the modern inductive method of research in natural science; and he added, that he rejoiced that such a person had at last been found in me, ready to devote himself to the rational investigation of the subject.

Another reason why this has been so long retarded, and why the gropings in the dark seemed likely never to end, is this : that those who attended to the subject, one after another, insisted on beginning to build the pyramid at its apex. They wished to do at first what they ought to have tried at last, namely, to eure diseases. Before taking the smallest pains to acquire the very slightest knowledge of the inner nature of the deep-lying force, the effects of which they had observed, they were bent on—making a trade of it ! Then, in their operations, they stumbled on somnambulism, on clairvoyance, and even on insanity; that is, they everywhere met with the manifestations of the force in their maximum of intensity, and complicated with stetes of disease both intense and hitherto inexplicable. While they stood amazed at the phenomena on the large scale, and of high intensity, the explanation of which they felt to be beyond their power, they neglected to enquire into its small and feeble beginnings, on which alone the foundation for a truly scientific structure could be securely laid. We have not drawn our knowledge and our doctrines of electricity and of sound from the lightning and the thunder; nor have we obtained our knowledge of the expansive force of steam from the eruptions of volcanoes. But as our ancestors fabled concerning these phenomena, because they did not understand  ---XLiii--- them, exactly so do modern philosophers, of the same category as Dr. DUBOIS-REYMOND, give the reins to their fancy in talking about what is called Animal Magnetism, because they know nothing about it. I do not here speak of medical men; but the cultivators of physics and of physiology have managed this matter no better. The majority of the former (medical men) reject all study of the phenomena, because they cannot comprehend the connection of cause and effect in them. The majority of the latter do so, because they wild not comprehend this. But this is not the path of research in natural science; and the latter dass, in truth, sin more grievously against the progress of enlightenment than the former. It is, indeed, any thing but honourable to our contemporaries, that they obstinately adhere to the primeval condition of blind ignorance in these matters, and will not perceive how fearfully they, by so doing, expose themselves on this side.

But I have not found the difficulty of getting at the truth, in such investigations, by any means so great and insuperable as those who dread the labour of research into the subject constantly amen it to be. What is so often said of lies and imposture, is found, on closer examination, really to exist in quite a different quarter. It is not found essentially in the sensitives, but, on the contrary, it lies in the subjective personality of the experimenter, either because he is blinded by prejudice and preconceived notions, or, as frequently happens, because he is not properly qualified for the tack he has undertaken. He who takes the subject in hand must know how to investigate, and how to put questions to nature, if he wishes to obtain  ---XLiV---  clear and instructive answers. But this is not a qualification found in every man, as far as we know. I must here say, to the honour of the mixed population of Vienna, that, among about a hundred persons, whom I have examined hitherto in the course of these researches, to a greater or less extent, and of whom more than sixty are named in this and the Second Part, hardly one was found who gave me two or three somewhat highly coloured answers; and this, when it did occur, arose certainly more from ignorante than from any dishonest intention. Such answers were, moreover, instantly detected and rebuked by me. Considering the internal natural connection in which all these phenomena stand to each other, and the threads of which connection I now firmly hold, it is absolutely impossible for any one to deceive me, even for a few minutes, by false answers, which 1 should instantly discover to be false, were they attempted. But, in fact, these people neuer dream of lying or deceiving; they speak out straightforward what they see and feel, when I try any experiment an them. Most of them exhibit an honest and pleasing zeal, in trying to explain to me as clearly as possible what it is that they recognise or perceive. This is encouraging to me, and I find in it some compensation for the injurious treatment which I have met with at the hands of men of science, who bad most reason to be grateful to me for my labours. All these innumerable answers to my questions agree in all points so perfectly, that every rational doubt must yield to the evidente of truth; and in this beautiful agreement lies the guarantee for their essential trustworthiness. But when the experimenters do not know how to ---XLV---  put their questions; when awkwardness and clumsiness cannot use the tools; when ignorante cannot arrange the necessary conditions of experiment; when want of tact cannot comprehend the answers; and when want of acuteness or intelligente is unable to discover the mutual relations of the phenomena;— then begin confusion and perplexity; the results, being misunderstood or misinterpreted, contradict each other; and the ill-qualified observer, rather than admit to himself or to others his own deficiencies, will a thousand times sooner adopt the dishonest expedient of accusing the observed person of deceit. But the deceiver, in regard to nature and science, is no other than himself, who, in his incapacity, has the impudence and the folly to try to brand truth with the mark of falsehood.

SCHLOSS REISENBIRG, NEAR VIENNA, February 1848.


October 1849.
This work was printed and ready by the spring of last year, when the outbreak of the German revolution prevented its publication. Matters having now assumed a different aspect, the publication now takes place. It was necessary to mention this, to render intelligible some determinations of dates and times, which, being printed, cannot now be altered. "
 






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